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biographical account Biographical accounts as a workable strategy in educational research. Paper presented at the conference Directions in educational research: postgraduate perspectives, University of Leicester, 23-24 July 2003. Biographies reveal the relationship between the private and the public worlds individuals experience. Vfw Patriot. The recording of these two structures in a personal document is the hallmark of the biographical method (Merrill, 2002). Anne. In qualitative research, biographical methods have been widely used. However, traditional methodology textbooks have paid little tribute to this.
It is not until the last fifteen years that biographical research has been regarded more seriously as a method. As more emphasis was put into biographies and collection of life stories, biographical accounts began to vfw patriot, be seen as points of research and discussion and not merely as components of any other ?serious? method (Roberts, 2002). Nature. This change has been registered as the ?biographical turn? in vfw patriot, social research. The fields of study where biographies have been used have also been extended within the social sciences; however, most of the writing studies were conducted under positivist approaches. As the contexts and disciplines where biographical research was used expanded, this gave it a more interdisciplinary character. One of the areas where it has been fruitful covering topics like schooling experiences, teachers? careers and lives, is education. The biographical or narrative turn has had an impact on the ways in which educational experiences, processes and policies are researched and understood (Coffey, 2001: 6).
The classroom, the school structure, teachers? experience in the educational systems and students? achievement, for example, had already been focus of study, however, now they were analysed under different approaches It would appear that the vfw patriot pen essay telling of a story about a life has become an important aspect of practice and research in professional teaching and education, other settings (Riessman, 1993: 5-6 in Roberts 2002: 23). Theoretically speaking, feminist theory also influenced the development of this research by pen essay appealing to thesis, the value of voice, consciousness raising and empowerment. The insights of the women?s movement began to pen essay, have a transformative effect on fields such as oral history and women?s experience were accorded value and man vs short essay, writers began to regard oral accounts as means of vfw patriot pen essay, recording women?s social and historical experiences (Gluck and Patai, 1991:1 in man vs short, Roberts 2002: 29). Pen Essay. In my interest to explore students? identity and the interrelation of this with their educational experience, using a biographical account sounded promising. As well as documenting individual lives and identities, the biographical turn in sociological enquiry provides a strategy for exploring personal histories and biographies, as well as the anne rice relationships between structure and agency in vfw patriot pen essay, contemporary society (Coffey, 2001: 54). Using this approach could open a window to try and see how students? (re)constructed their identity as they went through university life. Biographical research is part of a movement to reveal and understand the ?personal? and its interlinking with the anne thesis immediate and wider social context and political practices (Roberts, 2002: 31). It could also provide me with a wider vision on the different agendas students have in their daily life as they go through university education.
What would the pen essay biographical accounts reveal about the ways students construct their identity? This was one of the key questions throughout my study. In order to present my experience using the biographical method, I will divide this paper into five sections. First, I will first present a general theoretical support for the use of the biographical method in researching identity in educational contexts. Second, I will write about the context of anne thesis, my study and the aims for conducting it.
Third, I will write about the methodology followed specifically to collect the students? accounts. Fourth, I will discuss the pros and cons I have experienced with the approach. Vfw Patriot. And finally, I will present some preliminary findings of my research. The biographical approach. The term biographical research is used to refer not to final example, one approach to research but to a different range of similar approaches, whose main field of study is vfw patriot pen essay, ?lives?. Biographical research is an rice, exciting, stimulating and fast-moving field which seeks to understand the changing experiences and outlooks of individuals in their daily lives, what they see as important and how to provide interpretation of the account they give of pen essay, their past, present and future (Roberts, 2002: 1). The methodology I used to collect the students? accounts is in computer, guided by this concept.
The definitions of the biographical method as well as materials relevant to vfw patriot pen essay, study with this approach vary. The definition of biographical research I have used in my study follows the cover letter science lines of Roberts (2002: 3) where the term is used to denote work which uses stories of pen essay, individuals and other ?personal materials? to understand the individual life within its social context. The type of short essay, accounts students produced for my research fall within this category of ?personal materials?. Coffey?s (2001) notion of biographical research complements this definition by identifying the centrality of individual experiences as mechanisms for illuminating social processes in pen essay, educational settings. According to anne, her, biographical research has its emphasis on how social actors routinely engage in educational contexts and how they articulate and make sense of these experiences. Sarantakos?s (1994) version of biographical accounts identifies two elements: how the authors define themselves and social action and how their individuality is influenced by social factors. Pen Essay. The first element relates to the way people perceive and interprets the world around them. The second element talks about the relations between their opinions and their social environment. In my research, I was interested in finding a way that would allow me to see some connections between the university experience and man vs, the way students formed their identity.
To this particular interest, I found the biographical method enlightening. On one hand, you could see, through the student?s pieces of writing, how they read the pen essay world around them, their perception of reality. On the other hand, it could also offer some insights into cover for internship in computer science, how their opinions were influenced by the social environment of which the university and they were part of. Now, how could the students? accounts based on their life experience at the university offer some insight into the way they constructed their identity? Biographies and pen essay, identities in an educational research project.
Identities are negotiated and biographies constructed through school processes, learning encounters, and curricular engagement. In turn, the articulation and representation of selves in educational settings can be challenged, change, resisted or accepted (Coffey 2001: 53). The relationship between biographical research and approaches writing, identity is important since most debates on the condition of identity construction in our times are developed in the field of abstract theory (Roberts, 2002). Therefore, a study on identity which explores the ?lived lives? becomes appropriate and relevant. Studying through biographical accounts how identities are constructed opens up a space for insights into how factors like space, organizations and other social structures like youth and gender groups participate in this identity or identities? formation. In my study, in particular, the university is considered as a site of identity formation by offering a spatial, organizational and grouping structure for students, educational arenas form important sites for the active engagement of identity and biographical work (Coffey, 2001: 53). Educational research in colleges and vfw patriot, universities in the last 20 years has primarily been focused on short on indian academic achievement and students? attitudes and aspirations (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2001).
With the emerging interest in biographical work, schools, and other educational arenas, have increasingly been seen as sites for the active construction, production and reproduction of biographies and identities. Hence life histories, biographical data and personal narratives have been collected and analysed as mechanisms for understanding the lived realities of vfw patriot pen essay, schools and of teaching (Coffey, 2001: 55). In most of the essay on what when studies conducted using the biographical method, however, the interest has been put on the teachers? agenda: academic identity, racial and gender issues (Goodson 1997; Munro 1998; Weiler and Middleton 1999 cited in Coffey, 2001). My study, on vfw patriot the other hand, focuses on the students? identity. In order to better contextualise the use of the approaches to thesis writing biographical method in my study, the next section details the aims and context of my research. Aims and context of my research. The motivation for my research sprung up from my experience in teaching university students in Mexico and working for two types of universities, a public and a private one.
The way students saw themselves as part of the University and how they carried and showed this way of seeing themselves throughout their time there always struck me as interesting. The way the University experience became central at certain point in their lives was also intriguing. Finding out what the students as related themselves to higher education and how they valued it guided the key questions in my study. A focal aim in my study was to find out pen essay, how students created and cover letter in computer science, (re)created their identity inside an educational institution and to vfw patriot, what extent the university was involved in this issue of identity formation. I was not only interested in particular processes of identity formation but rather in developing a wider understanding of the role of word on what i want i grow, higher education to shape the pen essay identity of people in our society and anne rice, elaborate a more critical view of it. Context of study. The study was conducted in two universities in the State of pen essay, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; a private (ITESM) and a public one (UANL). The participants in anne rice thesis, the study included undergraduate students and academics. The group where I collected biographical accounts from was the students. Vfw Patriot. The study comprised 365 students from writing, Science and Social Sciences and in their second year of study. The idea was to pen essay, get a purposive sample of final example, students where both systems of education ?public and private university- and at least two fields of science were represented.
I was also interested in students who would have been in the university for at least one year so they would have already had a ?feel? for university life experience that they could write about. The following table sums up the vfw patriot pen essay sample of students in short, my study: The higher education institutions in Mexico. The subjects: students from the areas of Science and Social sciences in vfw patriot, both institutions. 365 Undergraduate students total. ? State-funded university: ? Privately-funded university: ITESM. The data collection was done in the university premises and in the following paragraphs I will explain how it was done. Description of the data collection and the educational biographical account. In order to collect information from students I used a technique which I called the educational biographical account. This method combined an information eliciting activity (word association) followed by essay on indian an autobiographical account. Vfw Patriot. The word association technique is one that I had extensively used as a teacher, mostly in language courses, to elicit vocabulary. Guided by a grounded theory orientation in my methodology, I found it useful to get students to write about how they valued higher education departing from their own ideas rather than from topics induced by me.
I wanted to see what ideas they connected to higher education and this eliciting technique seemed to be a less intrusive or indirect way to do it. The purpose of its application is on indian, best described by Sarantakos (1994: 209) in his description of vfw patriot pen essay, biographical methods, In the context of qualitative research, biographical methods attempt to present a perception of the self and the world from the cover for internship in computer science viewpoint of the author of the biography. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. This is how the technique was conducted. I asked students to write five words they related to the phrase university education ( educación universitaria in Spanish). After that, I asked them to 1000 word essay i want to be up, explain why they had chosen such words and what they meant for them. An example of the technique I used can be seen on appendix 1. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. My intention was to find what ideas or themes emerged from their answers that would connect with issues on identity construction. Before students started writing, I explained to essay education, them the aims of my research trying to get their writings directed towards my purpose.
I did this for ethical as well as for practical reasons so they would not write only isolated words with any connection. I also told them how I would be using their information keeping it confidential at all times. I have typed and analysed 365 documents in total; the amount of documents not processed was a low percentage and it was mainly due to inability to understand the students? handwriting or when the vfw patriot students failed to provide basic information that would allow a proper classification of the document. In order to analyse my data I followed the process of qualitative analysis suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994: 10-12) which includes four basic principles: data reduction (through coding), data display and conclusion drawing and verification (for detailed information of the model see Miles and Huberman 1994). Approaches To Thesis Writing. While typing the students? documents was a time consuming task it helped me elaborate the memos or commentary documents suggested by Miles and Huberman?s model for a preliminary analysis. Vfw Patriot. I had originally planned using the qualitative research software NVIVO to facilitate the management of man vs, my data; at this moment, I am still evaluating its usefulness since the analysis I have conducted so far has been done manually. One drawback I found using NVIVO was that entering the documents and vfw patriot, codes could take a long time.
However, I still found it useful to essay education, manage the vfw patriot data. The fact that it can organise the data into big categories and rice, be used to find correlation among data categories such as age, gender and field of study groups is a positive feature. Furthermore, its quantitative output of data could be used to complement a primarily qualitative analysis and vfw patriot pen essay, this is the anne rice benefit I am planning to use in my research (Kelle, 1995). Challenges and benefits of dealing with data come at different times of the research process either with software or without it. From collection to data analysis they pose interesting questions and bring the research to new stands and ways to develop. In the following section, I will write about the challenges and benefits I have experienced using the vfw patriot pen essay biographical account. Challenges and benefits of using the biographical approach. As Silverman (2000) states, there are only ?useful? or ?more useful than? techniques to fit a theory and a methodology and it is important to address the issues and limitations as well as the positive impressions experienced with a certain method.
The relatively new appearance of the biographical method as a trend in social science research make it susceptible, as any other method, to hard criticism in terms of lacking unity in its epistemological and methodological assumptions. This is in part due to its eclecticism in the way decisions are made as to what constitutes relevant material to example, study, how it is gathered and further on how it is analysed. This expansion of interest in the study of lives and vfw patriot pen essay, the use of biographical material raises the for internship immediate issue of whether there is really common ground ?in epistemology, methodology, interpretation and theoretical framework: a shared approach (Roberts 2002: 169). Pen Essay. This biographical turn , as Roberts calls it, challenges the thesis example researchers and the audiences to doing research in different ways; to exploring old concepts in new lights and to vfw patriot, continue refining their methods of enquiry. It is in this fashion that emergent methodologies develop and become recognised; the biographical turn may just as well follow the same path. As mentioned above, one of the challenges associated with the short on indian education biographical method is the variety of material it may cover. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Although some clarifications have been made in respect to some terms such as life history vs. life story (Atkinson, 1998), the main term remains at to thesis times elusive of definition. According to pen essay, Miller (2000: 19) life history refers to a series of substantive events arranged in 1000 to be i grow, chronological order.
Life story, on the other hand, refers to an account given by the individual without following a chronology. In my research, the type of material produced by students falls into this category. Although it is not written as a biography per vfw patriot pen essay, se, it does include aspects of the students? lives as they go through university. The challenge here is to make the material fit the description of a ?biographical piece? which in itself remains elusive in standard literature. An ethical and epistemological issue arises with my accounts because I am giving students a central idea to write about, different from final, life stories. This is an advantage as well as a risk. By channelling their answers to one topic I make sure they write about what my study is looking for; the other hand, I may as well be confining their writings to vfw patriot pen essay, one particular aspect of man vs nature short essay, their lives. The decision to conduct the data collection this way foresaw these problems, however in the interest of practicality I decided to take that risk. Another challenge I faced with the pen essay educational biographical account was the fact that it was technique I had not used it before in doing social research but as a teaching tool. I was not sure if the writings were going to come out clear and focused. Cover Letter In Computer Science. A pilot study using this technique could have been beneficial; unfortunately, practical issues like limited time and budget would not allow me to do it.
The first groups I worked with had a rougher experience with a less focused explanation of what to do on vfw patriot my part. I even changed the format of the activity later on as I realized there was some information I would need from students and I had not included that in the original format. This let me experience one of the benevolent sides of qualitative research where rewriting your process along the way is part of the research experience and opens a space for reflexivity, especially if novice in the field. Rice Thesis. Here also lies the basis for my argument that the flexibility of the biographical method to accept as valid a wide range of materials opens spaces for innovation and development of the vfw patriot pen essay methodology itself. It offers a field where new methods can be tried out and the possibility to explore social issues in a different light, from different angles, perhaps not yet explored. On Indian Education. According to vfw patriot, Amanda Coffey (2001:54), she agrees with Atkinson and Silverman (1997); Munro (1998); and Goodson (1992) in some of the potential problems one could encounter by using this approach: A danger in romanticising the individual and their stories in biographising the social and a possibility of missing the short essay social contexts and processes by overly concentrating on the individual and the personal. By privileging certain voices and lives, you may be ignoring the lives and pen essay, voices of others. In my study, I found that it is indeed easy to cover science, be let carried away by personal stories and miss the context. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. This would happen when the account I was analysing connected somehow with your own experience as a university student. Man Vs Nature Short. However, ?situating the writings as voices of social actors?, when conducting the analysis, as the terminology goes, helps to keep focused on the social and the processes being researched. It is a constant reminder the researcher needs to keep in mind, though.
As to pen essay, the privileging certain voices, I believe that is real challenge in in computer science, most studies. By concentrating in two universities only, I am aware I am leaving out the voices of those who go to vocational institutes and teacher training centres. I also know I am only getting the view of a percentage of the student population. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. By describing the sample in rice, my study and acknowledging its limitations I have tried to make justice to its partiality. With a vast universe like university students, aiming to get a purposive sample is as good as it gets once the limitations of the study have been acknowledged. Although the field of biographical research poses interesting challenges in pen essay, terms of interpretation and definition of its limits, its relevance in the development of qualitative methodology is notorious.
Biographical research has the thesis important merit of aiding the task of understanding major social shifts, by including how new experiences are interpreted by individuals within families, small groups and institutions (Roberts, 2002: 5). Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. This aspect relates closely to my area of study. Exploring how universities as social institutions influence the way students construct their identity brings up questions on how students interpret their experience within this social and essay to be up, dynamic setting. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. According to Goodson (1997, cited in Coffey, 2001) these are some of the benefits the biographical approach brings to research: It values personal experiences and individual voices as relevant and insightful ways of final thesis, understanding the everyday realities of education. It ensures that the backgrounds and experiences of the individuals involved are treated seriously and that they are grounded in their social, cultural and historical context. It helps understand the relationship between the students? lifestyles, latent identities and vfw patriot pen essay, cultures. Identities are complex, fragmented and shaped by understandings of lifestyle and culture.
Gathering students? narratives can help make sense of the letter for internship in computer science complexity of their identity construction and culture. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. In my experience using the method, I could add that although the challenges of the approach are important and should be taken into for internship, account when doing the research, the richness in the data and the sense of reality you find as you read the documents makes it a valuable approach to follow. Needless to say, visiting the vfw patriot classrooms and talking about my research to students was one of the most enjoyable parts of thesis, my fieldwork experience. The more I explained what my research was about the more I was convinced of the value of my project and the more refined my search for specific information became. Using this method helped refine, feedback and develop my research project, an pen essay, ongoing process most designs would aim for. A challenge in disguise had to do with the approaches writing settings where I conducted the study. Having a captive audience guaranteed numbers of people answering my exercise, but not their willingness to do it.
Some of the vfw patriot pen essay texts I collected gave me the impression that students were only killing time by word i want to be when answering. Others showed rather shallow answers and pen essay, limited themselves to write short answers unrelated to a lived experience. They were defining some words as if they were taking them out of a dictionary. At first sight, this may seem disappointing; however, it could also show me how interested students were in giving their opinions, or at least, when being asked in that way. This opened my mind to thinking of ways to approaches, improve the technique by perhaps combining it with a more direct method like a person-to person interview as well as doing a pilot study to test it, as I mentioned before. All in all, the response I got was positive and it helped me see the degree of effectiveness and challenges my technique may have.
The classification and analysis of the data concluded with 365 documents. The results of the first codification suggested some general themes which I will share in the following section. Preliminary findings and implications. According to the students? views on higher education and how it relates to their lives suggest that education is primarily seen as: A factor for social mobility regardless of the students? economic background. Vfw Patriot. Education is seen as a channel where students have deposited their aspirations for economic success. According to a study carried out in Mexico city, students from low income families face the dilemma of continuing with their studies or entering the essay labour market, 83% decides to continue with their studies (Valle and vfw patriot pen essay, Smith).This shows the letter in computer science high value students give to education when regardless of the vfw patriot economic difficulties they might experience, the idea to continue with their studies is still a strong motivation for them.
Education as an individual project: Personal development. ?Personal development? was a popular answer in the students? writings yet with diverse connotations. Most students wrote about personal development and their meanings included being knowledgeable, cultivating their spirit, attaining success as professionals; for some female students it meant accomplishing something different as women in a masculine-dominant school or family. Education as an asset. The high value students give to university education, especially as something good for the future suggests that besides being an ideal it is 1000 essay on what to be, also considered as a personal asset. Often students write about a ?brighter future? referring to vfw patriot, the time in 1000 word essay to be when i grow up, their lives after they conclude their studies. Their economic and professional aspirations are basically centered in getting their degree. They also write things like I know this is going to bring me benefits. Education as a family project.
The value for education is vfw patriot pen essay, not only connected to an individual project but also to a family one. There are concerns of letter in computer, paying back to the parents, for example. In lower income families, in pen essay, general, the values the family attributes to education are then channelled or indirectly imposed on those who can attend university. In most of the answers students gave about how they value education, the family connection is recurrent. Either if they feel grateful to their parents for paying for their education or because they want to reward in some symbolic ways what their parents have done for them. In the word essay on what i want case of vfw patriot, students who work or who are the bread-winner of the family the thesis example connection seems to be stronger since they feel the future of their children will also depend on the progress they make having a university degree.
It is important to reflect on the stress that students undergo as being the depositary of family aspirations and hope for a better future. Pen Essay. This influences the way they see themselves in the university context: similar to some, different from others and yet following the same path towards success through education. A sense of completeness. Anne. In the formation of their identity as individuals with a university degree, students see graduating from university as a step that makes them more complete human beings. Expressions like ?ser alguien en la vida? (?to be someone in life?; ?becoming someone?) suggest that there is a sense of vfw patriot pen essay, not being if not educated.
There is a sense of emptiness in the person unless they have obtained a university degree. It is as if the maxim ?I think therefore I exist? has become ?I am educated, therefore I exist. The socialization process students live in the university is influenced by how much involvement they have in the institution?s activities and how their interaction with peers is given. This in turn has to do with the type of students they are, full time, part-timers, commuters, mature returning students, etc. Essay On Indian. The diversity in the student body calls for pen essay, different steps of the socialization process to be experienced at different times and intensities. The type of citizen students feel they are has to do with what image of an educated person their society supports. The way higher education in approaches, most parts of the vfw patriot world is thesis, operating being exclusive rather than inclusive suggests that a sense of incompleteness is bound to be prevailing in most young people. Pen Essay. By far, this was the favourite word in the study. Either referred to directly or indirectly, status became the most popular word in their answers. The connections made with status vary and they go from being a more educated person (?persona culta?), having a more privileged place in society, securing a better job and having a ?decent? post in a company to being different from and superior to the others (the uneducated ones). One interesting characteristic related to social class and the value given to education is writing, that of class flight.
Education, for some, is a way of leaving a lower social class and vfw patriot, stepping up to a higher one. While this is true for lower income students; students from approaches to thesis writing, high income families tend to also make a point about class and pen essay, education by intending to remain in the same class with the final same high life standards. An academic credential would ensure better chances for a job and in times of crisis, if the possibility of vfw patriot pen essay, losing economic capital was there. This is the case of many high middle class families in Mexico nowadays. For most lower class students, education is still a life-saving project, a way out and up the social ladder. Example. This notion prevails even when the devaluation of university degrees seems to pen essay, be on the rise; paradoxically, credentials are a strong selection criteria in the job market and there are less and less jobs due to the economic crisis. Participation in final example, society. By being educated individuals, students seem to feel that they can get more participation in society.
This is an interesting finding because although they acknowledge they can have a more active participation in pen essay, society, a minimal percentage of students would explicitly write about how they may get involved in the development of the country or their community. Most answers tend to point to word on what when up, an individualized vision of being educated to vfw patriot, succeed as an individual with minor connection to their community. This last theme brings attention to the discussion of what role education has in society and how much of the students? involvement is encouraged or not through the university education practices. Working with a rather recent method in the area of educational research, has posed interesting challenges and rewards to my research. First the issues associated with an elusive definition of valid material made me reflect all along the research process on what I was using as material and why that constituted a valid one to explore.
Being able to test a technique as a new enquiry method was rewarding and the idea of perfecting it by doing a pilot study or combining it with another method has also become an interest for my future research. Anne Thesis. In terms of the research project in general, the results I have so far obtained suggest that through this approach one can engage in an analysis of students? experience through university by analysing their writings and ?reading through their lines? about how education plays an important role in their identity formation in an ever-changing and ?hungry-for-titles? society. It is vfw patriot, my belief that this study could not only encourage the use of biographical accounts as a research strategy but it could also motivate a critical view towards the direction university education is moving in our days. Word count: 4999. Atkinson, D. Thesis Example. (1998) The life story interview. London: Sage. Coffey, A. (2001) Education and social change . Buckingham: Open University Press.
Coffey, A. and Atkisnon, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data. Complementary research strategies. Pen Essay. London: SAGE Publications. 1000 Word When I Grow. Kelle, U. (1995) ed. Computer-aided qualitative data analysis. Theory, methods and practices . London: SAGE publications. Merril, B. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. (2002) Biographies as collective experience?
Paper presented at ESREA: The biography and life history Network Conference. Geneva, 7 ? 9 March. Miles, M. and cover letter, Huberman, M. (1994) Qualitative data analysis. Pen Essay. An expanded sourcebook . Second ed. London: SAGE publications. Approaches. Miller, L. (2000). Researching life stories and vfw patriot, family histories . London: Sage. Pascarella E. and Terenzini, T. Word Essay On What To Be When I Grow. (1991). How College affects students. Findings and pen essay, Insights from twenty years of research. Word Essay On What I Want I Grow. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Roberts, B. (2002) Biographical research . Buckingham: Open University Press. Pen Essay. Sarantakos, S. Essay On Indian Education. (1994). Social research . Hampshire, UK: The MacMillan Press, LTD. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Silverman, D. (2000). Doing qualitative research. A practical handbook . London: SAGE Publications LTD.
Silverman, D. (2001). Interpreting qualitative research. Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction . London: SAGE Publications LTD. Valle, A. and Smith, M. Revista Perfiles educativos (online) No.60. http://www1.unam.mx/cesu/perfiles Accessed on 4, June, 2003. On Indian Education. Appendix 1: Educational biographical account. UANL #1649; ITESM #1649; Masc. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. #1649; Fem. #1649; Edad _____ Semestre _____. Carrera ______________________ Estudiante local #1649; Foráneo #1649; ?De qué ciudad y Estado eres? _________________________________________. Approaches To Thesis. ?Cómo podría comunicarme contigo si fuera necesario? ___________________. 1. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Escribe cinco palabras que relaciones con la educación universitaria: 2. En el siguiente, escribe de qué manera estas palabras están relacionadas con tu vida. Si necesita más espacio, puedes usar el reverso de esta hoja.
Gracias por tu colaboración. Si deseas comunicarte conmigo puedes enviarme un correo electrónico a Lupita.Rodriguez@tiscali.co.uk. This document was added to the Education-line database on 16 July 2004.
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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and primacy of the economic in Euro-America to produce a radical constrast. This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the vfw patriot pen essay same coin.
Following the money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in thesis, which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the pen essay local economy, yet vividly condemned in thesis example, discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of vfw patriot pen essay, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the nature short text proposes to distinguish between morality and values and acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between different levels of value and vfw patriot pen essay, the existence of a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and purposely unimaginative.
As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an experiment in which differences are elicited to short education, provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Vfw Patriot. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million. It is the capital of an independent and virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and immigration. It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in contact with Europe for approaches to thesis, nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an obvious vantage point for a study of globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is not the pen essay ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the local with the global, makes it almost impossible to science, draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it. What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context?
In this article, I suggest an vfw patriot answer, famously coined by Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the anne thesis irreducible singularity of the vfw patriot pen essay things compared. In the second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of thesis example, how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and vfw patriot, anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to access the essay on indian teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to pen essay, allow the beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is letter for internship in computer science, a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question.
It foregrounds difference as the absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to Dumont, the meaning of a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from vfw patriot pen essay its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. Thesis. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies. That is to say, from a sociological standpoint it is actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of any element within the configuration to which it belongs. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is vfw patriot, essential.
However, there is much that is implicit in any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Thus, the issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the implicit dimension of both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to rice, Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only pen essay, uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on word essay on what to be up, which the analysis can draw afterward. Pen Essay. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on writing, where and how it should start. Vfw Patriot. In his work, the anthropologist appears somehow compelled by thesis example, ethnography to rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on Dumont#x2019;s work on vfw patriot pen essay, economy as a value in approaches to thesis, Euro-America, and my ethnography in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in pen essay, which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of both economic rationality and Islam. I then develop the 1000 word i want when argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of economies from society. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. According to Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in a separate subsystem that subordinates the rest, which took place over the course of the nineteenth century, was an exceptional event in human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and as the triumph of a form of short essay on indian, social life marked by vfw patriot, the separation and unresolved tension between economics and thesis, politics (Dumont 1977). He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and vfw patriot pen essay, helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an thesis example economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the definition of the word #x201C;economic.#x201D; Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and the other substantive:
The substantive meaning of economic derives from vfw patriot man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon approaches writing, nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to vfw patriot pen essay, a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the different uses of means induced by an insufficiency of those means. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the formalist definition only applied to market economies, whereas the substantive definition was universal, and thus of use to comparative anthropology. This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an short original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the pen essay question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to short, an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. On the contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the disembedding of pen essay, a fundamental domain of nature short, social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out there, unless and until men construct such an object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to pen essay, disclose an short education error or a truth regarding the mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. From a comparative point a view, the economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is beyond discussion. To Thesis Writing. Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on which the pen essay object of nature essay, economics is constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the vfw patriot pen essay genesis of final, economics as an intellectual category distinct from politics.
One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an vfw patriot pen essay implicit hierarchy. It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Dumont never sought to define economics, or to compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to approaches, elicit a value: the autonomy and vfw patriot, primacy of the economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of economic ideology by anne rice, considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of vfw patriot pen essay, value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of 1000 word on what, a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). Vfw Patriot. For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the individual as a value.
According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to 1000 word on what, produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at liberty to vfw patriot pen essay, decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107) In the second French edition of From Mandeville to Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of anne rice, his views. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in its natural form, as a value, is excluded from vfw patriot pen essay our ideology. It would therefore only be reintroduced in a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and forced, pathological, forms of subordination is our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for nature, example, call into question the pen essay legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to act upon the economy as an external, objective reality.
Rather, it is a warning about the final limits and constraints exerted by value systems on vfw patriot, power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the idea that power or strength of will has an unlimited capacity to anne, fully transform the world in vfw patriot, accordance with an ideal and cover, therefore to sift the good aspects, which will be kept, from the pen essay bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the power to transform social reality only between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of cover letter for internship in computer, what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to pen essay, understand its limits. His work is haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the in computer social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of a group that would oppose a resistance to pen essay, change (brought by another group) in the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the anne thesis limits imposed by a system of vfw patriot, values. The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to impose themselves on social formations that politics is not able to short essay on indian, fully control. Pen Essay. This situation is 1000 essay i want when up, dramatically illustrated by vfw patriot pen essay, the consequences of economic and financial globalization in general, especially in recent years, and portrays the predicaments of Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the power of word on what up, finance, or government corruption). The autonomy and primacy of the pen essay economic dimension is a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over short on indian the whole of vfw patriot pen essay, society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the man vs nature short few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the other major thesis of pen essay, The great transformation : that the emancipation of the economic domain is a major social and ideological fact, but that at an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite.
This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by a movement of liberalism to expand the scope of the market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy. Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in approaches writing, his contribution to vfw patriot pen essay, this issue: a value is never homogeneously dominant; it is final, always found in vfw patriot, combination with other values, in anne rice, this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in man vs nature, the economic field something called otherwise the #x2018;coexistence of opposites.#x2019; It is an vfw patriot empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is short essay, that the economic domain is not a comparative object. However, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. Pen Essay. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against anne, which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by highlighting a contrast. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of money and the idea of pen essay, a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Money is central to thesis example, the economy as well as matrimonial relations and kinship (from solidarity between relatives to the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to pen essay, their religious masters every time they visit them). Thus, everyone seems to be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money.
However, the centrality of money in social life, its penetration into the heart of intimacy, the final constant haggling and the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of money, which goes back at least to Greek antiquity, and is one of anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. Vfw Patriot. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is now more or less in word to be when i grow up, agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an vfw patriot error. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and anne thesis, meaningful relationship if money is pen essay, not involved at short on indian education one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and vfw patriot pen essay, have very low incomes, but there is nature short, also a deeper, sociological, reason. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and anne thesis, especially relatives.
For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in the courtyard when I got the SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and move around. Vfw Patriot. It#x2019;s been a year now. I#x2019;m trying to save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and anne thesis, hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to pen essay, connect our house to the water mains. 1000 Word Essay On What To Be When I Grow. From this point of view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure. But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to me about one problem or another.
And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. The problem is that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from rice thesis claims and demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is vfw patriot, converted in financial relations. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money.
For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to to thesis writing, pay the bus fare to vfw patriot, go to the bank and short essay, return home. Most of the vfw patriot pen essay time, however, money is put out of anne rice thesis, reach by converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to vfw patriot pen essay, a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is short on indian education, then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is vfw patriot pen essay, decided at the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the tontine). 1000 Essay On What I Want When I Grow. Once money circulates in a tontine, or is lent to someone, or is engaged in any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of time. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is not available immediately.
Money is thus put out of to thesis writing, reach in numerous financial networks. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. In other words, financial management is man vs nature short, based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is a link between the present and the future, it takes the nature form here not of speculative hoarding, but of vfw patriot pen essay, a network of relations. Illiquidity preference also means that money is available to irrigate financial networks. The velocity of money is extremely high, because no cash is to thesis, left idle.
People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it. Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the pen essay importance of synchronization of the nature short essay financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of relation, they are also, and vfw patriot, above all, the warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of anne rice, social or relational investment are used by vfw patriot pen essay, my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is cover for internship in computer science, not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the means by which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on two elements: firstly, the conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the possibility of having access to pen essay, cash when it is needed. The trouble here is that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in thesis example, order to gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the basic propositions of economics is that only markets can synchronize in this way.
Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges. Financial relations in vfw patriot pen essay, the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and thus a way of financing investment, but on essay i want to be i grow up, the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to households and businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the vfw patriot rest of word on what when, their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at vfw patriot the same time in order to man vs, maintain or develop their economic activities. Likewise, because solidarity is vfw patriot, always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an on indian unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in vfw patriot pen essay, their search for letter, funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is able to support them (i.e., in pen essay, this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by women for lifecycle events, especially birth and approaches to thesis writing, marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and huge amounts of money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening.
In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to describe the complex logic of the pen essay ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by which affinity and essay on what i want to be i grow up, the succession of generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of vfw patriot pen essay, social relations (Moya forthcoming). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the synchronization of all of example, a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into cash. For example, in each tontine (rotating savings and credit association), the order of recipients is fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is pen essay, involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the anne rice main actors of the ceremony they have come to vfw patriot, support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from final example ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Pen Essay. Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is final, ever concerned in the case of ndawtal . A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for any other purpose. Pen Essay. I carried out to thesis writing, a limited survey of vfw patriot pen essay, 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology.
There are no boundaries between financial spheres of anne rice thesis, exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and pen essay, Parry 1989). In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of short education, conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in a lottery, or gained from the sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to vfw patriot pen essay, ceremonial exchanges: the approaches to thesis origins of money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of no concern to the recipient and vice versa. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. It very common to use a 500 CFA franc note received at a ceremony for the fare back home, or to purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast. Cover Letter For Internship. Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by relatives by marriage to honor them at pen essay a birth or a marriage ceremony.
Urban sociality is comprised of flows of financial relations activated by individuals. It is approaches, not structured by pen essay, morally bounded spheres of final, exchange. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of agency: that is, the capacity to word to be when i grow up, synchronize relations and convert them into cash. In the local financial system, and pen essay, thus in sociality, economy is subordinated to women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in rice, the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies.
Nor is it the case that the entire economy of Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Vfw Patriot. Rather, my argument is cover, that from the pen essay point of view of finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to synchronize and convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for economic (or any other) purposes. On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of financial relations, and i want i grow up, the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the point of vfw patriot, view of the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America. Short Essay On Indian Education. I am not contrasting two distinct types of vfw patriot pen essay, economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). My argument rests on the placement of two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in relation to politics in final thesis example, Euro-America, and subordination in relation to ceremonies in Dakar. This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and vfw patriot pen essay, performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun.
Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and so on. In other words, everyone has an opinion on a number of issues, and each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is rice thesis, something of an inevitable fact, for women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the excessive spending, and condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. The amount of money mobilized and final thesis example, spent in vfw patriot, ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in essay, France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money.
Here it is not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the vfw patriot pen essay girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is so hard for short essay on indian, her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to keep something at the end of the vfw patriot pen essay day. Everybody condemns that. Every one of us. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French].
I am an approaches activist for development. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only talk. And we do the letter for internship in computer ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of pen essay, this apparent contradiction and the feeling of perplexity that stems from it.
When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and approaches to thesis writing, so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is hard to understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from Senegal to Indonesia ( aadet ). Vfw Patriot. In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of tradition in the sense of continuity, repetition over anne time, or practices inherited from the vfw patriot past, however, whether from ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things. When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on essay to be i grow, tradition: in vfw patriot pen essay, fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for letter for internship in computer science, example, to compare the Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to other regional ethnic groups such as the pen essay Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the thesis past. Vfw Patriot. Furthermore, the term aada not only essay on what when up, signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices.
There are numerous types of costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on pen essay, civility and nature essay, honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and vfw patriot, during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the bride into her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to and from Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for essay, ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). All of these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the financial aspect of female ceremonies. Vfw Patriot. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and cover in computer science, Wolof, explained to me: Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore.
Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere. Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is vfw patriot, our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of as negative and harmful.
We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the anne rice thesis exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in pen essay, birth and final, marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on vfw patriot pen essay, the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in the wake of the debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the role of the postcolonial state, partly to the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to development operate in Dakar. Final Thesis Example. Women are the privileged targets and recipients of development assistance funds and microfinance projects. These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to pen essay, ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the rice last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and vfw patriot, microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of man vs nature essay, energy and resources to advertising good governance and development. A local consequence of this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to the public sphere, to pen essay, politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the approaches to thesis discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and pen essay, good governance is echoed by 1000 word essay on what i want to be up, many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in vfw patriot pen essay, poor suburbs.
My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is a key sociopolitical goal, and also the way most of anne thesis, my interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Vfw Patriot. Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to 1000 up, ceremonies as well as to corruption or patronage. As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on vfw patriot, the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of perplexity.
The problem is identical in the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and nature, development). The money that should be devoted to vfw patriot, economic purposes is essay education, embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and condemned in its name. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177). Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the vfw patriot allocation of funds per for internship se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in everyday life. The discussions focused on vfw patriot, the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of man vs nature short essay, their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the vfw patriot pen essay practice of appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and anne thesis, make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in family ceremonies (Heath 1992).
The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in general as pre-Islamic unholy practices. Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in the name of Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and an excessive desire for vfw patriot pen essay, fame and superiority over others. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in 1000 word when up, marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam.
From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by quoting vintage Bill Clinton. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the pen essay current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in French) in family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Short On Indian Education. Yet he is hardly the vfw patriot first. In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933). Over the last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947).
In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for essay on what i want to be when i grow, marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the code in the Jacquinot Decree of September 14, 1951. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972. It is still in 1000 essay on what i want to be when i grow up, effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the past five decades. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and vfw patriot pen essay, birth ceremonies. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the letter for internship transformation of society against the goodwill of individuals but to vfw patriot, control of one element of local social life in order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is that everyone, and not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and the future of society in general. But over final thesis example the last century, the countless condemnations and vfw patriot pen essay, numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all.
So far, the situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is final thesis, considered as a sort of mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core of their own social life in the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by the consequences of the autonomy and primacy of the economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by my interlocutors in Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of recognizing value as such in the realm of discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to put it differently, the vfw patriot pen essay paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of actors facing the limits of artificialism are indicators (for the to thesis anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in vfw patriot pen essay, moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the full realization of Islam and development. Short. Condemnation of ceremonies represents the way contradiction is pen essay, resolved in the realm of on indian, moral discourse and justification. Vfw Patriot. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them. Yet the primacy of anne rice, ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of vfw patriot, his readers.
However, the originality of his view is to claim that since the nature short essay fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by vfw patriot pen essay, which the approaches to thesis different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and economic development against each other is framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the vfw patriot intimate link between money and sociality. Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences. Financial resources are elicited from others: the amount of money collected depends almost entirely on nature short, the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for a given purpose. Vfw Patriot. Here, moral discourse and the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to Islam, it is not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in the allocation of financial resources; the anne rice thesis problem is vfw patriot pen essay, that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the Muslim morality of temperance and word on what to be when i grow up, restraint.
Furthermore, the vfw patriot path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the highest value order, that of anne rice thesis, absolute submission of the individual to God. It means abiding by what is commanded in the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to all my interlocutors, the rituals recommended by Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to be carried out pen essay, when (respectively) a couple is married or a baby is born. However, Islam and women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in the ritual organization of the lifecycle. Nature. On the occasion of a marriage or the birth of a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in themselves. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and marriage rituals are the manner in which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the vfw patriot value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in on indian education, the name of Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to two complementary orders of value in a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the relationship between the individual and vfw patriot, God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by social actors, it is essay on what i want to be when i grow, a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and which structures the vfw patriot sociality of Dakar. This configuration is not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in the case of economics and final thesis example, politics in Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors.
In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the vfw patriot pen essay way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of approaches to thesis writing, power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases. From a comparative point of view, in the Euro-American case, economics and vfw patriot, politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to fully realize the short essay on indian individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. It a question of power. In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of vfw patriot pen essay, ever-rising expenditure in letter for internship in computer science, family ceremonies is far from new. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, religious and vfw patriot, political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. However, the ethnography of the short mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and vfw patriot pen essay, marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming).
This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only man vs nature essay, a superficial impact: on the contrary, the vfw patriot pen essay transformations brought about by the city are far from superficial or meaningless. For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the rice thesis basis of vfw patriot pen essay, kinship and social organization in cover letter, this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of vfw patriot, kinship networks in African cities is thesis example, well known in the organization of residential systems, the urban integration of migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995). In Dakar, however, kinship is not only a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is vfw patriot, susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by writing, the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of possible (financial) relations is extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in vfw patriot pen essay, income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and essay, more money) combine with the preference for illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by women for birth and pen essay, marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. It is not proof of word essay on what to be when up, a fundamental difference between social formations. In Euro-America, marriage and birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in vfw patriot, Dakar, money and anne thesis, relations are two sides of the same coin: the financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and the synchronization of pen essay, sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of ceremonies and the subordinate position of the economic aspect in final, Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America.
However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an vfw patriot pen essay #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the essay i want to be when i grow up contrast between the vfw patriot various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of short essay, women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to vfw patriot pen essay, unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the will to change, whether it be in regard to lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. If there is a political stance to be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. It is worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations.
He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37). 15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of hierarchy in individualist terms, and AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is final thesis example, simple: the patient is doomed to fail as long as he feels able to tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to pen essay, trying to rice thesis, pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of vfw patriot pen essay, this vicious circle is for the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of final thesis, his dependency; and pen essay, that solely the recognition of his self-will, the approaches to thesis writing acceptance of a more comprehensive and powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to vfw patriot pen essay, Dumont, an alcoholic is confronted by a seeming paradox: on the basis of anne, his ideals, he believes in his own free will and independence, but empirically he is an addict. And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of pen essay, his salvation is the essay i want to be when up full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the former. If one can generalize, the lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds.
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1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991. Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Paris: Gallimard.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. German Ideology: From France to Germany and rice, back . Chicago: University of vfw patriot, Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933. Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . To Thesis. Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of pen essay, Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003.
Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . 1000 Essay I Want To Be When. Paris: La Decouverte. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from Senegal#x201D;, Development and Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in vfw patriot pen essay, Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Berkeley: University of short essay, California Press.
Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by vfw patriot pen essay, James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. The general theory of on what i want to be i grow, employment, interest, and pen essay, money . London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and anne rice, Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997.
L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Pen Essay. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. Anne Thesis. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and pen essay, economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and final example, markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. Pearson, 243#x2013;70.
New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline. 1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. 1989. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Bitter money: Cultural economy and cover letter for internship, some African meanings of forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and vfw patriot pen essay, what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the English crowd in thesis, the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994. The social meaning of money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . Pen Essay. New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical.
Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique. Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of 1000 on what i want to be up, his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Dumont (1983) wrote the preface to vfw patriot pen essay, the French edition of The great transformation . 2. The idea of an final thesis example economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to vfw patriot, the progress of knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the nature short essay very discovery of the vfw patriot pen essay existence of society in the modern sense. For Internship. Humans are linked by relations of economic interdependence. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the giver for his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. Vfw Patriot. In the Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269). 7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and 1000 word to be i grow, his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well.
Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the vfw patriot pen essay wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to letter, the poor, is the pen essay third pillar of Islam. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to short essay education, help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in pen essay, their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis). 12.
Islam has been a major component of anne rice, Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. Pen Essay. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the law, justice, and religion. 14. In his contribution to man vs short essay, this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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Word Counter Reading Level Feature. One of the tracking features Word Counter provides in the “Details” section on the right side of the tool is a Reading Level. Pen Essay? Of all the metrics the tool keeps track of, this is probably the cover for internship in computer one we receive the most questions about. With that in mind, we felt it would be beneficial to try to pen essay, explain in a little bit more detail how this metric works and what exactly it means. First and foremost, Reading Level isn’t a reflection of your writing skill in any way. You may have excellent writing which ranks at approaches to thesis, a fourth-grade reading level, while you may have substandard writing which ranks at the college reading level. There seems to be an vfw patriot assumption by nature short many that a higher Reading Level rank means the writing is better.
That is, a Reading Level at vfw patriot pen essay, a college level is final thesis example better writing than a Reading Level at a tenth-grade level. This is not what this metric is measuring. The only thing the Reading Level tries to do is give an indicator of the education level a person would need to have in order to understand the words you’re using in your writing. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? It’s not meant to rice thesis, be a ranking of your writing ability in any way. Pen Essay? It’s simply a general guideline so you can anticipate what education level a person would need to have to understand what you have written. WordCounter assesses Reading Level by using the Dale–Chall readability formula.
This formula uses 3,000 common words a fourth grader should understand as its foundation. Basically, if you use only the writing words found in the list of 3,000 words when you write, your Reading Level rank will be at a fourth-grade level. Vfw Patriot? As you use more words which are not on the list of to thesis 3,000 words, the Reading Level will increase. The more words you use that fall outside the vfw patriot pen essay core 3,000-word list, the to thesis higher level of reading the vfw patriot pen essay Reading Level feature will assign to your writing. When you first begin to type in the text area, Reading Level will display as N/A. Letter For Internship Science? In order for a Reading Level to appear, you will need to write a minimum of vfw patriot two sentences.
The number of sentences is part of the formula used, and the more sentences in the writing, the 1000 on what i want more accurate the Readability Level will be. There’s a need for a two-sentence minimum to vfw patriot pen essay, begin to make an accurate Reading Level determination. With this in mind, when the metric shows your writing at “college level,” what it’s saying is on indian that you’re using a significant number of words in your writing which a fourth grader won’t be familiar with. If the Reading Level says fourth-grade level, then a fourth-grader would understand the vfw patriot pen essay vast majority of the words you used in your writing. If the cover for internship science metric says a seventh-grade level, you’re using some words that a typical fourth-grader wouldn’t understand, but not as many as would be in the writing to rank the Reading Level at the college level. Reading Level may be important for a number of reasons.
If you are attempting to target your article, story or other writing to vfw patriot pen essay, a specific audience who may be at a certain reading grade level, this metric can help make sure you’re not writing over writing their heads. At the same time, you may not want your writing to come across as too simplistic by using only common words elementary students would understand, and want to pen essay, raise the number and variety of vocabulary in your writing to appeal to to be, a higher educated reader. oke thanks for tips, i can understand.. Um.. this feature is bad. I was writing a very basic thing and it said I was college level. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? I’m sure all 4th graders would understand it. Statistics and numbers make it college level I think. when i wrote this clearly rubbish sentence it took me from anne thesis HS to college LOL: “The interrelational level of the vfw patriot pen essay synaptic exchange between various idea that, in a post-structural sort of analysis, give way to all the meandering tropes which make up our existences through an rice thesis intersectional framework all add to the propinquity of intradimensional experiences, all within a subpar trope that mellifluously delineates all our existences’ sakes. “ Again, this is vfw patriot a reading level feature, not a writing level feature. It’s due to the use of example higher-level dictionary terms.
While it is vfw patriot completely gibberish and makes no sense, passing the thesis paragraph to vfw patriot pen essay, a typical fourth grader would leave them rather confused about 90% of the words used; the man vs short metric uses what a fourth grader would typically understand as the baseline and goes up from there based on the commonality of words pulled from the dictionary it uses for the formula. I doubt a 4th grader would know what a sub-par trope is. Therefore, it’s probably at a level where only college students/graduates would UNDERSTAND it, not necessarily find it sensical. It probably calls that college level because those are real college level words just in a nonsense order. But that really seems complicated…. even I couldn’t really understand it… lol that’s the best. This is vfw patriot BS! I’m in nature, high school and I’m not a junior high school level. Are you trying to make me mad.
This tool is way off base and you need to fix it so I don’t get angry every time I come here. This is….not at pen essay, all high school level. Rubbish ? Bruh I can barely understand what you just wrote. You must be joking for sure. you’re so cool mate. When the combinative nature of language choice appropriates meaning, the semiotic determination alters ontological perceptivity, or does it create it? @schnee don’t mean to but coulnd’t help noticing your comprehensive skills when admin emphasized that this function is NOT “a writing level feature”. The fact that this software is freely available for us students to access and example, use is a huge blessing enough (thank you wordcounter team). You got to understand the costs involved with publishing a more enhanced version of this software unless you wanna help donate on behalf of vfw patriot pen essay us and I’ll rest my case. Why not make a trip to the nearest lecturer/ tutor/ teacher/ college-level human and get your document proofread there! because that uses a lot of writing big words.
using words like alteration and personification make it collage and vfw patriot, im 12 doing a school assessment (I am the short best in the country at my age) I can’t help but think that if you were the best in your country, you’d be able to spell alliteration and personification. Kaeli, you do realise that they spelled personification right and alteration is vfw patriot a real word and education, they might not have meant alliteration. I can’t help but think that if you’re going to be shady like that you’d at least point out pen essay, their actual errors such as “collage” and “anoymus.” Just saying…. I really do believe that you are lying about being the best in the country, you don’t really have the best grammar or spelling…. Who told you that you are the best in the country? LMAO. Final Example? Keep believing that,kid. Yes, you’re the best in the country but can’t spell college. Good luck to you, buddy. 3/10 trolling try better next time m8.
Considering the vfw patriot pen essay fact that you are learning about short personification and what i’m assuming is vfw patriot alliteration when you are twelve makes it highly unbelievable that you are the smartest twelve year old in what i’m assuming is a first world developed country such as USA or England in in computer, which case if you were to be the smartest twelve year old there you would be far more advanced in the English language than to be going over some poetry terms of which that I learnt when I was 9. I live in New Zealand and vfw patriot, am currently 13 and partaking in NCEA Level 1 English, level 2 Physics and History and Level 3 Maths, Biology and Chemistry. So I heavily doubt that you are “the best in the country” for your age. As a part-time internet hobo I am fully entitled to essay on indian education, write this. Bloody hell, you all take yourselves far too seriously. It was a little kid making a blatantly untrue comment which you didn’t need to take so to heart… chill. out. Odd that you are the best when you can not spell “Anonymous” at 12 years old. Chanel No 1, please calm down. Yes, OP is probably not the most intelligent guy/girl ever, but neither are you. (I also live in New Zealand, and I’m studying second-year Engineering at Massey University at the age of pen essay 15.) If you’re going to be condescending on the internet, at for internship in computer science, least use your real name. and ur name is spelt wrong lol. Guys, You do realize there are other people with the pen essay name anonymous so he didn’t spell it wrong, it was just taken so he had to make another anonymous related name.
Also he did spell Personification and Alteration right and it doesn’t have to be alliteration. and he might have had a typo or auto-correct or something make it collage, even on the computer it can happen. And yes, he may not be the smartest person in his country at his age, but I’m pretty sure none of you are either, but we all say to ourselves I am the best, I can make it. We encourage ourselves. Now quit discouraging this guy and let him be, because he doesn’t know all the words in the world and neither do any of you. Cover For Internship Science? SO ENCOURAGE THIS MAN! YOU ARE THE SMARTEST AT YOUR AGE AND YOU CAN BECOME SMARTER AND MAKE IT THROUGH LIFE WITHOUT ALL THESE DISCOURAGERS AND HATERS STANDING IN YOUR WAY. I know I sound a bit to dramatic and overprotective but I’m only saying this because y’all are dissing his thoughts and beliefs and his tiny little errors that he might not have made. I can’t help but think if y’all are gonna discourage him like that, you’d at least all try to be the best in your countries too. Which I’m not. And neither are any of you! That statement frustrates me because you spelled three words incorrectly and one of them was your username.
P.S. I am the same age as you are. I never thought a simple word counting website would host so much… salt. Perfect for popcorn! Fight on. Angry egotistical preteens! Fill the world with your trials of intellectual superiority! Why are you all coming at a 12 year old like this… What kind of superiority issues are you all dealing with… I’m sure you are kid judging by your GREAT spelling and grammar. She/He might not be in a English using country.
You keep on learning and pen essay, live your life, do not let these jealous people keep you down. Hahahahahahahah u can’t even spell them words right. Im pretty sure you’re not best in the country for your age. The thingy said i was Godly 3. Guys just calm down this is site he just wanted to say something about the result he got on the site for letter for internship in computer his writing level. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? give him a break this is not about being the best in your country or what ever i am in an all French school where we have to learn all our english outside of school so most likely I have a whole bunch of mistakes and my sentences are too long but that doesnt matter. what matters is the message that he was trying to get accross like fiftey other prople writing comments on this page. Calm down. I am 13 and quiet stupid for my age but I know not to pick on an innocent comment. using words like alteration and personification make it collage and anne rice thesis, im 12 doing a school assessment (I am the best in the country at pen essay, my age) – ALLITERATION, not alteration. – COLLEGE, not collage, which is a completely different thing.
You are most likely an average student for short essay education your grade, definitely not “the best in the country” at your age. Obviously not. Anoymos, you should work on pen essay your English. HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT anoymos WILL EVEN READ YOUR COMMENTS. AND JUST USE A DIFFERENT WORD COUNTING SYSTEM… LIKE “word”, or another website DUH! I’d like to point a few things out to essay on what i want to be i grow, you, as you seem to vfw patriot pen essay, have a misconception.
To begin with, college is spelled with an thesis e, not an a, as you spelled it collage. That is an pen essay entirely different word that means a piece of art made by man vs attaching pieces of paper, often from articles or magazines, to another sheet of paper. Next, anonymous, such as in your username, is actually spelled a-n-o-n-y-m-o-u-s, rather than anoymos. Vfw Patriot? I also do not understand how spell check did not catch that, as while collage is a real word in the English language, anoymos is not. I am typing it here and 1000 word on what i want to be i grow up, spell check automatically changed it to anomy’s.
I had to change it back. I’m has a capital I and an apostrophe. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? You lack beginning-of-sentence capitalization and no period appears at the end. Also, best in the country by what standard? You should realize that, as I was 12 on March 8, 2016, I clearly have better spelling and grammar than you do, and therefore would be ahead of 1000 word i want to be when you according to pen essay, whatever flawed ranking system you are using. Even if I am not first, you could never be, because I am ahead of you. Even if you were second, which is most certainly not correct, that’s still not first. Man Vs Nature? I would then be. You should also realize that these kinds of rankings have ties of several hundred or thousand people. Vfw Patriot? If you get a perfect score on a standardized test of approaches to thesis writing some sort, you do not receive precedence in vfw patriot pen essay, the ranking over thesis all others with the same score. If that were true, I would be 1st in vfw patriot pen essay, Michigan as far as 7th-grade ELA scores go, ahead of every single 7th grader in the state!
There are quite clearly ties. How else would they establish first, second, and so on? I must say, I detest nothing more than liars and tellers of untruths who brag about fake, easy to earn, and redundant accomplishments, or have overinflated egos but nothing to be proud of. How many of on what i want when i grow up you can claim a 35 on ACT writing before 8th grade? How many can even claim that as juniors or seniors in high school? Excuse you, I think being “the best in pen essay, the country at your age” is a little bit off. Have you gone against any other 12 year-olds outside of your city? I think not. And if you HAVE, actually, used some sort of system that measured you against all those other 12 year-olds, please inform me, for I will gladly supply you with an apology. Guys, this is a 12 year old we’re talking about.
And those of 1000 word on what i want to be when i grow up you who are literally picking apart the entire sentence and username need to calm down lol. I’m betting that you were extra careful writing your corrections as you usually may write carelessly and more conveniently when writing in an informal tone on vfw patriot pen essay the internet. Also none of you even considered the fact that they may be an international student who’s first language is on indian not English. They may be at the top of their class or be ONE OF THE top students in their country for other reasons aside from vfw patriot their English skills, especially if that is not one of their core classes. And even so, who’s to say the country is not poor in approaches, education, top rank of a country does not mean the kid has top skills on a global scale.
The fact of the pen essay matter is, if you’re actually spending time correcting this kid and telling them that they are most definitely not at short, the top of their class then you’re being close minded and petty. Please find something better to pen essay, do with your time. I’m going to be completely honest here. I was actually the most intellgent pre-peubescent in the country. I boast prior Intelligence Quotients of 159 and nature short, 170 at pen essay, the ages of i want to be i grow up 11 and 12, respectively.
I received my Graduate Equivalent Diploma when I was still 12, and I began attending Moorpark College the pen essay next semester. Having received my Associate’s Degree from Moorpark, I transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (#3 undergraduate establishment in the world; #1 for rice thesis undergraduate engineering and vfw patriot, applied sciences) at the age of 14. Now completing my senior research at anne rice thesis, the age of vfw patriot pen essay 16, I am have undertaken immunooncology, the study of curing cancer through means of developing an immunity treatment that causes the T-Cells to short essay on indian, fight off any cancerous cells. Anyways, so before I’m 18, I will already have a $100,000 job while all of you neanderthals are arguing about who has the ‘superior appendages.’ And anybody that does not understand what that means has no place to participate in an argument that relates to intelligence. I truly feel that our youth is spiraling into inadequacy. Vfw Patriot? As quoted in Catch-22; “Some men are born mediocre. Some men achieve mediocrity, and others have mediocrity thrust upon man vs them.” I’m sure anybody here could guess which group I believe demonstrates the “innovators of vfw patriot tomorrow.” (for anybody that does not understand this satire, the for internship science answer is the first clause).
Hey, look, y’all, calm down. It’s a 12-year old kid, and vfw patriot, you guys are shooting him down. Maybe he’s not the best, but all of you responding aren’t either. Short Essay On Indian? I feel as if some of these answers have employed the vfw patriot pen essay usage of thesauruses to make you sound smarter. Also, Anonymous who commented on January 3, 2017, you need to approaches writing, calm down too. Vfw Patriot? Your post was simply stating how amazing you are at everything, and approaches, you need to pen essay, realize that no matter how good you think you are, you are not the best. Yeah, I admit you’re pretty good at what you’re doing, but I can’t even say you’re telling the truth. As you quoted, “Some men are born mediocre. Some men achieve mediocrity, and others have mediocrity thrust upon final them.” I feel as if in that quote you’re trying to vfw patriot, say you’re a genius.
Also, if y’all are going to pick me apart for defending one person who thinks he’s the best and tearing down another one – well, to that I say, one is twelve and one is final example 16 and obviously isn’t telling the truth. Also, whoever posted the first comment was just playing around, and vfw patriot pen essay, I don’t think what he did should create this huge swamp of nature essay people criticizing each other. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Everyone, please calm down and final example, stop boasting. Okay guys, come on, a twelve year old simply felt like boasting, I mean, maybe his ego should take it down a notch, or two, or ten, regardless, no harm done, if he wants to be Donald Trump, then let him be Donald Trump (just stop him before he runs for president), as for you other boastful buffoons (and yes, I have good provocation to call you that) need to calm down, if you truly are a genius, then you would be out there helping people rather than picking on vfw patriot some poor (and mildly uninformed) kid about a claim that shouldn’t matter to to thesis, anyone that actually has a life. Before you shred me to bits, keep in vfw patriot, mind that every second you spend taking me out, you could be saving lives, or at least someone’s ego, I an specifically talking to you ‘Channel No 1’ and ‘Anonymous’. If you really feel you need to take someone’s ego down, do it to cover in computer science, yourself first. I agree. I had input my whole short story and got a 9th/10th grade level. Then I erased it and typed, “The dog eats sandwiches”.
That merits a College Graduate level. I am fairly certain most of us knew all those words, well before grade 4. You must have left other text in the text area; “The dog eats sandwiches” is too short to vfw patriot pen essay, register a reading level. Actually, I typed in “The dog eats sandwiches,” and nothing else, and it did indeed register “College Graduate.” It also registered a reading time of 1 minute. Not sure why that is happening — I tried to confirm, but it’s not doing it for me. For Internship In Computer? it shouldn’t register anything until you write a minimum of two sentences. What browser are you using?
I can confirm, this happened to me. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? I tested it and it reads “College Graduate” I typed that same sentence and example, it said N/A for reading level and pen essay, one second for reading time. Mine says 9th-10th grade for reading level :/ You are right, I put it in and it said ‘N/A’ indicating that the cover for internship in computer statement is too short. I tried writing the exact same sentence you wrote, but the vfw patriot program says that the reading level is N/A.
Probably, the reading level i.e. “college graduate” was for the story you wrote and writing, deleted. I put “The. Dog. Eats. Sandwiches. and it answered “4th grade.” While that may not be a College Graduate, the situation is still clearly ridiculous. I tried that out and vfw patriot, guess what, when I typed “The.
Dog. Rice Thesis? E” it said 11-12th grade reading level. In all honesty, why would some one on vfw patriot pen essay the internet looking at the word counter website not be able to recognize, “The dog eats sandwiches.” ? If you can not realize that it is super basic, then you should just get off this website, and stop trolling the Admin and let him do his job for the people who actually are having concerning problems. Cover Letter For Internship In Computer Science? Thanks. THANK YOU!
Serious authors use this website as well. It may not be perfect but it does a great job of helping me manage my schedule. Lol!! I’m pretty sure that most preschool-kindergarten students would understand that sentence! Maybe the system was slow because you had just deleted a lot of writing? I also agree with you… when i just wrote 2 paragraphs, it said that it was an 11th grade to 12th grade reading level…. this feature should be fixed…. I have noticed i have had the same issue with some of my reports and presentations i was doing for vfw patriot a stu.go. meeting at my school. 13 Colonies Trade.
I wrote this and essay i want up, it said that im 11-12 grade. Hello my name is Noah and i’m from the Southern colonies which are Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. And i’m going to tell you about vfw patriot pen essay my trade, the process, my colonial life, and word essay i want when i grow up, conclusion.Hello. So you’re probably thinking what my job is well i’m a tanner. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? That means that I tan leather and give it to the tailor and the tailor make shoes out of 1000 word i want it or anything else made out of vfw patriot pen essay leather. Same goes for me, the man vs nature essay feature isn’t much developed, at all! … I wrote this and it said I was a college graduate. Try it out and vfw patriot pen essay, copy and paste it! I love Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs, and essay, Paragraphs. I can write that too. Vfw Patriot? I like cheese.
Of course, since paragraphs isn’t one of the words on the list. Oh yeah? I copyed text from man vs nature a book i read and it said College Student. And I’m 10 and a half or so. I am in grade nine and am writing a story on a shady dude in Colombia. It says “College Graduate” so i assume the word “cannabis” is putting the vfw patriot scores up. I happen to be twelve and knowledgeable enough to approaches to thesis writing, understand the word cannabis as well as a few others. Clearly the reading level system is glitchy.
No, I don’t think it is. I think it was designed for other things than people intentionally trying to vfw patriot pen essay, make it glitch. How the grinch stole christmas has a 8th grade reading level according to cover for internship, this. hah lol probs american. What I think it should do is ask for vfw patriot pen essay your grade level, then record the words you use, then if your grade level using a certain word enough it will add to the list, that way its like a self updating survey.
This way it will truly every year know how smart, or stupid 4th graders – college people are. That’s a good idea, however people may troll it. I just typed 50 words and anne rice, it said it was 9-10th grade: First of all, its like stale bread with only 11 other players (to my 40) here except for a few totally fortunate people who typed in a bunch of random numbers. I don’t mean to boast, but it’s the pen essay unfortunate, sad, brutally truthful way to man vs nature short essay, say.
This is vfw patriot pen essay 50 words. tbh i wanna know the letter for internship in computer science highest grade level or like and entire reading level rubric thing and pen essay, it’s not provided. 1000 Word Essay When? as soon as it’s on here i’ll be happy ok. How the reading level is vfw patriot pen essay calculated: Select several 100-word samples throughout the text. Compute the average sentence length in words (divide the essay on indian education number of vfw patriot pen essay words by man vs short the number of pen essay sentences). Compute the percentage of words NOT on the Dale–Chall word list of 3,000 easy words. Compute this equation.
Raw score = 0.1579*(PDW) + 0.0496*(ASL) + 3.6365. Raw score = uncorrected reading grade of a student who can answer one-half of the test questions on a passage. PDW = Percentage of anne thesis difficult words not on vfw patriot the Dale–Chall word list. ASL = Average sentence length. Finally, to compensate for the “grade-equivalent curve,” apply the following chart for the Final Score: Raw score — Final score. 4.9 and below — Grade 4 and below. 9.0–9.9 — Grades 13–15 (college) 10 and above — Grades 16 and above.
Congratulations on developing such a unique tool. I use word counter frequently given the short education unreliability of the vfw patriot Common App’s text box(40 minutes limit). I wish all the admins the 1000 i want to be up best of luck in the future. Post Scriptum: Love your website! This system isn’t very good, as I was typing words basic middle school students should know, instead they commented that I’m at a college graduate level. Unless if this is counting people of which is below their reading level, it really needs to be fixed. I wouldn’t be too sure about vfw patriot pen essay that. As a “middle school student” I was ALREADY reading “at a college level”, or close to it. Because I enjoyed reading, and would read a lot for education pleasure outside of school. Furthermore, students are regularly forced to pen essay, encounter and learn new words and concepts as they go through a school year, with the aim of 1000 word essay i want i grow up expanding their vocabulary. Indeed, even adults still continually learn new words as a reader, too.
There is no reason that people can’t read “above” their “grade level”; in fact, such things are to be encouraged and celebrated. It’s more a matter of minimum requirements. Reading Level should be considered not as the actual average reading capabilities at that grade (which will change over the course of the year anyway, and might change from vfw patriot year to year and also would be really hard to cover letter, calculate, in pen essay, comparison), so much as the MINIMUM education a person should be expected to ALREADY have, in essay, order to understand a passage. But a person can be better-educated than the “minimum” standards, pretty easily. Especially in something like reading, where it’s fairly easy to expand your skills outside of school. Therefore, you can write in a manner where, yes, most middle school students would understand it, but because you use a wider variety of vocabulary, the “bare minimum” expectation for education is raised, in terms of who you should RELY on vfw patriot pen essay being able to read it. Just to provide an example, in cover in computer science, fact, take the above text; the vfw patriot word variety is just enough that it says the Reading Level is 9th-10th Grade. Thesis? But yes, the average middle schooler (which depending on your area, is either grades 6-8, 6-9, or 7 and 8) would likely have no problem comprehending it. Because it’s not about actual average reading ability at that “age”, it’s about the base level of suggested education someone of that level should have had by vfw patriot that point. This is why they tell you not to worry THAT much about Reading Level; it’s only cover letter for internship in computer one component of your writing’s audience to consider. And honestly, unless you are writing a children’s book with explicit intent to vfw patriot pen essay, be either comprehensible to those of a certain age or teach those of a certain age new words?
It’s…nice to know, but probably not a big deal. Unless you’re writing at “Grade 16” level and essay on what i want to be, your audience is NOT people with PhDs, in which case dear god please rein it in a little, Mr. Joyce. #128539; Hi im Bob. I like susy. Colle Flower delicious. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Type in this and to thesis writing, you get college grad status… Correct. Misspelling and proper names (currently — we will be adding them) aren’t found on the list so they wouldn’t register as words a 4th grader would know.
What is “Colle” supposed to mean? i think they were trying to say cauliflower. I love Paragraphs, Paragraphs, Paragraphs. hey. hey. hi. i got college grad for that #128578; and btw everyone, stop complaining about the website.
If you don’t like it, then just don’t use it. There’s seriously no need for this rubbish. tbh I think there is no sure way to vfw patriot, determine complexity without a human, as complexity itself has many different parts, some which are not necessarily quantitative. therefore there is short no exact equation that may be used to describe “complexity.” btw i am in the 8th grade in vfw patriot, a highly selective high school which has a lower acc rate than harvard univ. but still i dont think my writing, though better than most kids my age, has the level of “college graduate”. just sayin. you are so pretentious. just sayin. gosh I hate all these people bragging on this site. “Oh-ho-ho, I’m so great, I spend 14 hours a day reading!
I may be fat but I’ve already been accepted into Harvard at i want when up, 14 yrs old.” good job *gives thumbs up* IKR, like I am in 6th grade and pen essay, I am writing in 11-12th grade level XD. Really nice option,the script also calculates the total words within a short time,thanks. but its kinda a fail this sentence got college student. “hi my name is olya nd im going to tell you why dogs are good. Dogs are good because dogs are dogs” The level is essay education college student because of the spelling mistakes which aren’t words on pen essay the 3000-word list and to thesis, are considered words a 4th grader wouldn’t know. Is College Graduate the highest level?
Yes, college graduate is the highest level. Thank god! I though that the college graduate is the pen essay lower level. On a whim, I typed in “I am Bob. I like cheese. I also like pasta. Asparagus is on indian yucky. Fido eats my asparagus.” And it said that it is College Level. Correct, because you used many of the words not on the 3000-word list. It would have been different if you had written “I am me.
I like cheese. I also like noodles. Corn is vfw patriot pen essay bad. My dog eats my corn.” which would rank 5th-grade level, but says basically the same thing. For me it said 11th-12th grade but I guess that’s pretty close. Im in 8th grade and it says the level 9-10th grade. is that good? now it says 11th-12th. It’s not “good” or “bad” — it simply tells you a person who has that level of education would likely be able to understand it and those at a lower grade level may have some difficulty in understanding it. Would it be really accurate if you had 1074 words?
Also, how would you write stuff about DNA that is 5th or 6th grade level instead of short education college grad? The more words used, the more accurate the reading level will be in most cases. For technical writing like on DNA the vfw patriot way to man vs essay, do it is to define the terms which are above their vocabulary in terms that are easy to understand. Then you would want to do a readability check with the DNA terms you defined absent since the reader should now understand the pen essay meaning of them. I think that this should also take into account how short your sentences are, along with illogical words, and short, if you have strong diction or not. For example, “I showed the ytgab wrong. He did not like me. I frwag seld.” This would bring it up to a very high grade level, however, “showed” is quite weak. So is “used” and “utilized”. Those should bring down the points quite some, and using wrong words should also count.
In theory, this is a great idea, but almost impossible to program. The reading level formula isn’t perfect, but it does give a rough idea which is vfw patriot better than nothing. I do not get the final example explanation. If you say that someone who reads what you wrote has to read at a college level, would that not automatically indicate that the writer is pen essay writing at a college level as well? I don’t get it. No.
It tells you the words you use are at a college level, but nothing about the writing itself. For example, “The biology publication focused on cells and how they interact within the cover letter for internship body. He hated the vfw patriot coursework, but he wanted to approaches to thesis writing, be a doctor.” “The biologies publication focus on cell and how it interacted within the bodies. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? He hate coursework, but want to essay, doctor.” are both college level reading, but both aren’t college level writing.
What’s the pen essay best way to increase the reading level so I can be at college level? If you use more words that aren’t found in man vs nature, the 3000 word list for 4th graders, it will increase the pen essay reading level. While it’s easy to manipulate this score, that’s not what it’s for. It’s to final example, give you a general idea of who can read your writing when you write naturally. It said my reading level was 9th-10th grade when actually it was pretty basic and was just describing a basic item. Can anyone explain? The articles explains how the reading level is calculated. What exactly didn’t you understand? i typed in somthing simple and it said it was college graduate level.
i think the whole idea is a bust but i like the idea if only it actually worked. It’s not that it doesn’t work, it’s that the formula depends on word count. Typing one sentence and basing your judgment of the programming on that is foolish on your part. Vfw Patriot? It says right in for internship in computer, the explanation that the longer the vfw patriot written work, the more accurate it will be. That is because it needs a larger sample environment. I’m seriously surprised so many people aren’t understanding that… I typed an original story of 496 words (up to 600) for nature short essay SOTA Creative Writing 2016, I am primary 6 (6th Grade) in vfw patriot pen essay, Singapore, and composed that type of short essay on indian education story (I woke up but it wasn’t a dream) and found out that type was for Sec 3 to Sec 4 (9th to 10th grade). Vfw Patriot? * unbelievable * It was for Primary 6. Final Example? Its true. How did my story go from 11th grade-12 grade to 9th-10th grade? I did not change anything, yet the vfw patriot reading appeared differently than it had before? We have started to approaches, add more common words to the list (mostly conjunctions, plurals and different tenses of the 3000 words already on vfw patriot the list) to cover letter for internship, try and make it more accurate. This may have changed the reading level.
Ummmm yeh I’m in year 8 at school and vfw patriot, I’m not complaining, well not really but i pasted my english essay into anne rice it, and every few minutes it changes between 11th-12th grade and pen essay, college graduate, but totally skips college level. This happened to my friend too. To Thesis? Why is this happening? I love this site. I am doing a project for vfw patriot pen essay National History Day and I need it to be 1500 words or more. It’s a great tool and helps me set things out. Thank you for short on indian education creating an awesome site. Always great to hear that people find it useful #128578;
Me too! I’m also using this site for vfw patriot NHD. Essay I Grow? I’m kinda surprised and not surprised that there will be others using word counters for NHD; I guess we NHD people think alike? No way! I’m also using this for NHD. I really do love this feature, but I only find it useful when writing non-fiction for school essays. I do a lot of pen essay fantasy writing and I find it hard to gage my writing’s level because I am using words that don’t exist because it’s the name of objects, places, creatures and letter in computer, worlds that don’t exist.
If I took Erin Hunter’s Warriors, which can be comprehended by a 2nd grader, it would be drastically changed because of the vfw patriot pen essay vocabulary used by the cats to describe the things around them (Road=Thunderpath Human=Twoleg Flu=Greencough Noon=Sunhigh) Harry Potter would also be a great example and find itself with a very unfair upgrade. The words used in these books aren’t found in the Dale-Chall formula because they are words that don’t normally exist in the English language. I understand how hard to it to short on indian, program for these kinds of things, but I do find it frustrating sometimes. Yes, this formula does have limitations — it should only be used as a general guideline and if you’re writing like you suggested above, it’s not going to vfw patriot pen essay, accurately reflect the reading level. If you find it frustrating, just don’t use it and stop complaining and taking your problems out on other people. “If you find it frustrating, just don’t use it and essay on indian, stop complaining and taking your problems out on other people” This is almost as bad as the vfw patriot pen essay ‘if you have nothing nice to say, then don’t say anything at all’ argument.
It’s nothing more than an man vs short attempt at vfw patriot, deflecting criticism. Man Vs Nature Essay? It’s constructive criticism, too. Pen Essay? The commenter wrote about, in detail, the man vs short limitations he/she encountered in regard to pen essay, the system. That’s called ‘constructive critcism’, which is more helpful than any amount of man vs short essay praise. Mere praise is substanceless and says nothing. On the other hand, constructive critcism gives way to pen essay, perpetual improvement. It feels nice to for internship in computer, be praised, sure, but it isn’t helpful. And it may feel bad to be critcised, but it is pen essay helpful if you understand what you should be doing to remedy the issue.
You could even say that the cover science people who only praise you don’t care enough about you to recognise and/or help you improve your flaws. People who give a lot of vfw patriot constructive criticism devote their own time to improving someone else’s creation. If all humans seek validation, affirmation and understanding, constructive criticism is the anne purest form of vfw patriot pen essay that. Ironically, pure praise is hardly anything like that. Usually, the best kind of constructive criticism is also peppered with positivity AND praise. Praise on its own is letter substanceless, but when it’s used with constructive criticism, it becomes useful. This is vfw patriot pen essay what @Nerdy-Kat129 has done. It turns out that nothing could really be done about it, but should he/she really be denied their right to voice their opinion because they don’t ‘have anything nice to say?’ No, I don’t believe so. To Thesis Writing? There was no rude conduct whatsoever in their comment, and it’s still helpful for fantasy writers reading it that may not have considered the possibility. I don’t understand why you ignored the majority of the pen essay comment in favour of focusing on the last four words.
Constructive criticism can be sseen as complaining, I guess, since all criticism is complaining at anne thesis, heart–but that doesn’t mean that it’s a bad thing. The irony is that you’re substancelessly complaining about another comment with actual substance that is vfw patriot pen essay complaining about the feature. That part about ‘taking your problems out on other people’ sounds like a stock phrase you just threw in there without really understanding what it meant. It’s just some light criticism, nothing more. Don’t take it so personally or so seriously.
And don’t take this comment aggressively, because I’m not being aggressive. If I was being aggressive, it would be lined with far more colourful language. Thank you for this very useful feature. This website is wonderful, thank you. Also, I do not understand how people do not understand the “Reading Level” function. Anne Rice? The Author explains it clearly in pen essay, the original post. Also, before commenting, one should read through the other comments to avoid being redundant. I saw the same question asked 6 different times by 6 different people. A question that is 1000 word essay on what i grow clearly explained in the beginning anyhow. I mean…you all know how to pen essay, read, correct? #128578;
Thanks for the website, it’s a great tool and word on what to be when i grow, I use it often. This is an awesome system, I’ll give you that, but I myself was very concerned when my 200 word small essay was rated as college level. After a small research, I discovered that the reason for this was that I was writing in Finnish therefore every word was outside the 3 000 words of vfw patriot pen essay a fourth grader. Other than using a foreign language, I think this website in genius and I plan to letter for internship in computer, use it when actually writing something in English! I agree. It’s an awesome website and the best around but i wrote a simple text in swedish and the reading level was rated collage graduate. I have been searching in pen essay, google for an online word counting tool. Rice? I ended up at your site.
Later on, I have visited the others. This is by far the best word count tool out there. Thank you! I literally wrote the title and it said college student. I like the unique tool, but I don’t think it is very reliable. I love the website though. My title, however, was: What are the writer’s thoughts and feelings on ‘The Merchant of Venice’? Reading level gets more accurate when you write more — it’s easy to miss many of the 3000 words when you just write a single sentence.
It is (almost) impossible to make a really good reading level thingy. i wrote “Insidious potatoes, insulated rueing, altruistic spellchecker, current affairs. ” and copy/pasted it many times. gave me a college graduate level. Pasted my essay, and it gave me college graduate. I’m not even the vfw patriot pen essay equivalent of 10th grade… You might want to read the essay article. If you do, you’ll understand why you got the vfw patriot pen essay reading level you did. If you haven’t read the on indian article, then you shouldn’t be commenting. The idea behind this is nice, but I don’t think it provides any useful information whatsoever. I can see the potential, but at its current state it will only manage to vfw patriot, befuddle a user if anything.
Main problems are that it doesn’t recognise plural form/passive form of words, and that the whole 3k word concept is cover letter for internship science a little silly to begin with. Having multiple dictionaries (one for each level) would work much better. But yeah, i don’t know if you can find word lists like that.. Plural thing example: I like apple.
I hate bee. I love girl. 4th Grade. I like apples. I hate bees. I love girls. 11-12th Grade. We will be adding plurals to make it more accurate. I typed in vfw patriot, “The dog eats sandwiches” and nature, then typed “.” and vfw patriot, made an space after that and then it said reading level “collage graduate”. I like the short idea but doesn’t work all that well. It’s due to the plurals — we are working on a fix.
If you write “The dog eat sandwich.” it come sin at below 4th grade. Seriously, I found the vfw patriot Math Captcha harder to cypher than the to thesis idea of reading levels. I popped in to see if there was a rating above College Level, and was surprised at some of the criticism people type. After using this website for two years, about vfw patriot pen essay 100 times, I can say that it does work. Sometimes my writing comes out College on the first time; others, it can be 9/10 or 11/12th grade; I’ll use the word frequency feature, include common words, and to thesis, am usually surprised to vfw patriot pen essay, see how many times I used “the, and, from”. After a little editing, I’ll remove some words, rewrite/substitute this and that, and watch the writing level increase. Dear Word Counter. Thesis Example? The reading level rating is an great feature but when i get up to two sentences its says “collage graduate”.
Even when i type in things like for an example ” The dogs eats sandwiches”. Pen Essay? Is it something wrong with my computer or is this for everyone? Everyone is just mad that they received a low level lol. Don’t be mad at you’re poor writing. ump actually everyone is frustrated that they are getting high levels for simple writing. Seriously people just stop complaining. Admin can’t do anything about the letter for internship in computer science fact that you don’t suck. If you are just going to keep complaining please stop.
If you hate it that much either stop using the website or just make your own if your that smart because hey everyone is write. Everyones getting college graduate aren’t they. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? #128528; thx for the informtion #128578; I really enjoy the reading level feature and 1000 on what i want to be when i grow up, knowing where my writing is at. Keep up the great work! Hi there. Here to voice my appraisal for this website (despite what all you negative people above are saying). I am using this to pen essay, aid in writing my book and I am really pleased with it’s software. This has helped me structuralise and manage the content of the letter for internship in computer book I am currently in progress of writing. Keep up the pen essay good work, site admins! #128578; yeah, I wish everyone would just STOP COMPLAINING. as if they could do any better. This is final thesis actually a really smart website and if you think it’s not then just stop acting as if you’re so smart because unless you can make a new better website, you can’t be that smart.
I typed in this, “”A dog akuefbaubdmcjbk sandwiches.”Saijsbuffebw fjskefbhfhe dog. Wilfred said i jslifdw ej hfilsie jjufbaekd v”, after reading some of the comments and indeed is said I am a college graduate. I believe you need to rethink your reading level. Of course — if you make up nonsense words that don’t exist, then they wouldn’t be recognized by a 4th grader or be on vfw patriot the list. My writing level is usually 9/10th grade but sometimes if I put some effort, I get 11/12th grade. Man Vs Nature Short Essay? BUT it’s killing me how my friends most of the time gets 11/12th and pen essay, hardly anything lower than that- their lowest would be 9/10th. I keep asking myself what I’ve been doing wrong. Example? As a writer, it kind of makes me feel small. It’s reading level, not writing level. You shouldn’t feel bad about it since it doesn’t say anything about vfw patriot pen essay how well you write.
I was wondering about this, I’ve been at the 11-12th grade level for my story and a chapter brought it down to 9-10th. Is this even a reliable metric to use? It’s an estimate and gives a general indication. It’s important for someone to to thesis writing, do their research before putting discouraging posts on someone’s website that show nothing more or less than your own inability to read. The administrator of this site made it very clear what the so-called “readability” level is. Vfw Patriot? This is not a random or arbitrary score given by this website. It is a scale invented by Dale and Chall in i want to be when up, 1945 and updated 50 years later. It has been accepted by statisticians and linguists as an accurate estimate (note, not exact end-all-beat-all fact, just an estimate) of vfw patriot what level an letter in computer individual’s reading capacity would need to be in order to understand 100% of the document. I know that, for myself, I was reading on vfw patriot pen essay a high school level by rice kindergarten, but my little brother who is in middle school struggles to read on-grade-level books. Meanwhile, he was helping me with my high school math homework when he was not even in school yet. Everyone’s mind is wired differently.
This scale in no way suggests that you (the reader) could not read more than 3,000 basic words by fourth grade or that you (the writer) are not able to write to your target audience. This scale is more of a measurement of the commonality of the words you use and the length of vfw patriot your sentences than it is short a measurement of your “ability”. Then again, if you are one of those who thinks the system is broken because you typed in so much nonsense and were told that you must be a college graduate clearly lack the ability to read this article (which is on an 11th-12th grade level). Vfw Patriot? To write at a 4th grade level, your words need to (on average) be shorter than 4 letters, while to write on approaches to thesis writing a college graduate level, they only need to be (on average) about 5 letters long. This is a consistent trend that can be measured, so for pen essay those of you who think you can make a paper or short story “higher level” by rice using bigger words, there is minimal evidence of vfw patriot this. Better to science, stick with how you can write comfortably and vfw patriot, leave the administrator of this site be. Rice? (Note, I write most comfortably between a 9th and 12th grade level. Pen Essay? If you read this thinking “wow, he’s a hypocrite, using a bunch of big words and long sentences just so he can sound more “complicated”, this passage ranked at 11th-12th grade, and that’s where I like it!) Thank you Linguist! I was getting tired of scrolling through the SAME comments looking for anything USEFUL! You nailed it!
To the short essay on indian education young folks, in pen essay, the future, consider taking time to read through previous comments before repeating and arguing about an issue that has already been addressed. Thanks. yes, omg. That is so true, its actually so annoying that people are so stupid today. I’m only 12 years old, and final thesis, let me tell all you negative people out there who have nothing better to do with their lives than post negative comments on a smart website that you can not use, then you are a waste of space and your wasting your breath. The admins on this website have to vfw patriot pen essay, keep replying to your stupid posts, just scroll up and you’ll be able to see 5000000000 of the cover same frickin’ questions – all negative might i add. Just get a life and stop ruining other peoples including the vfw patriot admins who have just created this website for people who are going to essay on indian, use it and find it useful, not for pen essay people who just complain about it the man vs short whole time. Mom lkes me. Dad likes me. Swiming is fun.
. Vfw Patriot? I got a college graduate. If you don’t spell words correctly, they will not be part of the list. Short Education? We are working on vfw patriot pen essay plurals. Posted a Shakespearean sonnet into this, reading level was 9’th grade. Thesis? Shakespeare says : website doth be’th 10/10. This is a cool tool! I can see this reversed as an added tool for HR departments. Pen Essay? There’s so much automation as it is, but companies would definitely pay for something like this. I’m 13 and anne rice thesis, if I lived in America I would be in 9th grade but it said my essay is pen essay 11th-12th grade?
The words you are using in short essay, the essay are at a 11th – 12th grade reading level. I like roses. Vfw Patriot? Roses are red. Red roses have thorns. Roses can be pink. Pink roses are pretty. I like pink roses.
I’m sorry but there is no way the above sentences does not make 4th grade. Red, roses, thorn, and like are all words used in dr Seuss books. I see absolutely no reason this qualifies as high school intellect requirements. I understand the basics of what has been discussed above, but I believe until this bug is fixed, it might be best to advise it’s broken or remove it. As all I have to say is green eggs and ham would likely generate a higher level when only two random versus of… I would not like them. I would not like them. green eggs and ham. I do not like them,
Rates as 5-6 th grade. It’s due to the plurals used instead of the singular. If you write that “rose” instead of “roses” it comes out as 5th grade. We will have an update for the plural issue soon. If you guys read the previous comments before asking questions to the admin and complaining about the reading system, it would save the short on indian admin a lot of time. Thanks! It’s fantastic that you have put together a tool like this. I like to know the reading level so I’m not writing in a way that others won’t be able to understand.
It’s a great resource and helps me make sure I’m writing at the correct level. OMG! What the heck. I’m sure primary students will understand this. Love this tool. Gonna drop a link on vfw patriot my college’s discussion board since we have word count requirements for our posts. Should be useful and anne, send you some of that tasty ad revenue #128512; Thanks. Shout outs are always greatly appreciated #128578; I love how all these keyboard warrior kids think using big words and sophisticated paragraphing techniques gives them the pen essay status of 1000 word i want to be when up a college graduate, when in vfw patriot, reality, in higher education, you get awarded more marks and final thesis example, get given better results for pen essay writing in a more simple fashion so anyone who reads it will have a better understanding, in other words getting your point across to man vs, everyone. What use is it being smart and vfw patriot, pompous when only 3 people can understand wtf you’re talking about. One thing that hasn’t been mentioned, or at 1000 word i want to be when i grow, least i haven’t noticed being mentioned is vfw patriot that sentence length seems to play a role, so if someone blotches their sentence with comma splices and other errors it will raise the reading level. one way to test this is to simply write the word “the” a bunch of letter times, adding periods through out; the vfw patriot pen essay more periods the shorter the sentences the lower the reading level, less periods longer sentences higher reading level.
While i agree that college and university students and graduates to write longer sentences, i don’t think it should be a part of the reading level as it may encourage other to comma splice or otherwise inappropriately combine two independent clauses. awesome, thanks. This feature helps me out sometime! Amazing website, I used it for my NJHS application essay. It really helped a lot, thanks! ^_^ I am a 7th grader writing a book report on the spy so far i have 714 words and 3848 characters and it says the level is 11-12th i really dont belive it at all :/ but i like the feature its pretty cool i just wish it worked better.
This records the reading level of your book report, not your writing level. For Internship Science? People reading your book report may need a minimum requirement of pen essay 11-12th high school education or higher to understand 100% of your work. This does not matter in essay on what i want to be when, your case, as your teacher or instructor should already be finished with high school. I’ve been using Word Counter for the last three years, at least, to help me along as I write fiction. Keeping a reliable word and page count has made my life so much easier.
I was nothing short of vfw patriot pen essay thrilled when I discovered the for internship science auto-save function — much more reliable than Word for vfw patriot pen essay my scatterbrained self. Not to mention the essay on what when up keyword density, arguably my favourite of the vfw patriot pen essay available features. I’d always been curious about the reading level function. Thank you for this article, for your endless patience, and for this tool! Always wonderful to hear that people find the tool useful! well what does the College Graduate reading level means ? is it good ? Does this tool work with foreign languages ? I wrote a long text in French and thesis, this said this was college graduate level so i assume this is not working with french, does someone knows were i could actually find such a useful tool for vfw patriot pen essay other languages than English. thanks. No, this only works in 1000 word on what i want to be i grow up, English. I’m not aware of one that gives reading levels in other languages other than English. My writing level is much higher than 7th grade!
This tool sucks. How dare you tell me that my writing level is at a 7th grade when I’m in vfw patriot pen essay, college. Final Thesis Example? I wouldn’t be in college if I could only vfw patriot pen essay write at a 7th grade level. Approaches To Thesis Writing? This is a disgrace! This tool indicates reading level (who would be able to read your writing), not your writing level. I can’t believe the amount of vfw patriot stupidity in the comments here. This is a tool that gives you an estimate on what level student would be able to understand your writing. Of course, you can manipulate it to rice thesis, come up with unrealistic reading levels. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? That doesn’t mean that the letter in computer tool is pen essay useful.
Maybe if all of you spent more time trying to approaches to thesis, improve your writing rather than trying to vfw patriot, find ways to final thesis example, manipulate the vfw patriot formula you would be doing better in school. I typed in an obviously stupid sentence (with an okay one as well), and the result was college graduate. The thing I typed in man vs short essay, was as follows: “Zia Rey had finally exited the hospital with her son and her friend. DOGGIES. IS. MY. LIFEY. YEEEEEE. HUEHUEHUEHE.
ME. HATEY. DAWGIE-WAHGGYS. ME WUFFY-CHUFFY. KITTY POO POO PIEZ.” That was college graduate. Alright. Vfw Patriot? That happened. Again, if the words aren’t on the list of 3000 words (such as a person’s name) or just strange rarely used words, it’s going to nature essay, rank the level high. OMG LOL something is very up with this. I am in fourth grade.
My reading level is 10th-12th grade. I think something might be a little bit wrong. When will this feature be corrected? I literally typed in “Yejh uwiwejhu hwr oerwoj foew. ewifw jimef w. ji wifuew df.” and it said “College Graduate”. Granted, I am a college graduate, but this is pure gibberish. Lol. There is nothing to pen essay, correct. Jibberish wouldn’t be part of the man vs nature short 3000 common words, so of course it would rank at college reading level. I wrote this : dark souls. dark souls. Pen Essay? dark souls. and it gave me a college graduate and I tried refreshing the page as well but it still gave me college graduate (I’m using Microsoft edge if you are wondering)
Please read the article and short essay, other comments I’ve replied to which have written similar short sentences as you have. It will explain why this is the vfw patriot pen essay case. This is an interesting tool. I think the thesis reading level feature is vfw patriot pen essay beneficial, but I’d like to nature short, see a writing level tool as well. That would be great and would help a lot to improve my writing. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Then I’d know if I was writing at my grade level or above.
Silly people did not read the page. Short? So they do not know how the pen essay tool works. If they read the writing page all the way through they would not post silly things. There we go. To continue a trend, pop that in the box. It returns 4th grade.
Hopefully that means the people posting ridiculous questions realise they look quite #039;silly#039;. This reading level tool is an vfw patriot pen essay excellent idea but I think it needs some fine-tuning. It distinguishes only between two kinds of man vs nature short essay words: 4th-grader words and not 4th-grader words. That means that if you use enough words a fifth-grader ought to vfw patriot, know, it will still rate it as college-level reading, not fifth-grade reading. Now of course it would be a monstrously ambitious project to thesis, rate EVERY word in the English language as a specific grade level, but if this was at least done for a set of pen essay common enough words (500. 1000 per grade level past 4th), then it would already significantly improve the accuracy of the rating. All words that aren’t given such a rating can safely be assumed to be college-level vocabulary because they’re too obscure for the raters to man vs short, have remembered. Haha we don’t use “grade” here so I have no idea what it would actually stand for here. But that’s also partly because I don’t know much stuff in pen essay, the first place #128578; Word counter is really useful though, especially for the school essays and project.
I just wish I actually understood what the grades mean. It’ll help a lot ((especially since I keep forgetting and start typing in to thesis writing, short forms, it shows me the spelling errors)) xD. “Grades” are the vfw patriot pen essay same as primary school years. Word Essay On What I Want I Grow? Fourth grade is primary school 4th year. Junior High school is vfw patriot usually years 7 and 8 and high school is years 9 through 12.
Apperently Im a college Graduate. Dear admin, have you considered using the reading level to augment the word essay on what when i grow up reading speed (i.e. to vfw patriot pen essay, use it as a multiplier)? Technical papers would certainly be ranked at colleague graduate level, simply because of the density of jargons used. Reading speeds would be lower in such instances. Kindly consider. While not exactly what you’re requesting here, you can adjust the reading speed manually (Click on Options, then Details — find Reading Speed and click on anne the wrench next to it). Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? This will allow you to adjust the reading speed higher or lower depending on final your needs. The German text I wrote was rated ”College graduate”. Mein Gott! If you write in vfw patriot, any language other than English, you’ll get a college graduate rating because the system is based on 3000 common English words.
If you’re writing German, you would not be using any of them. I wrote a simple essay for grade 6 level and they said College Graduate… ok, this has apparently nothing to do with the reading level, but I have one problem. I was typing an essay for school and I went to another tab to do some research. When I went back to the Word Counter tab, the number of words dropped from 528 to 502. Rice Thesis? So now I’m quite confused which number of vfw patriot pen essay word I should use… Other than that, Word Counter has been a great help. I’m not sure why that would happen — if you want to send us the writing you were counting, we can take a look to cover in computer, see if we can replicate what happened and see if we can solve the mystery.
It’s fine! I guess I’ll go with the 502 as I saved and closed the vfw patriot tab then it showed 502. Thanks! Perhaps you should stick the 1000 word essay up word “Beta” after the Reading Level feature on the count page. It might cut down on the number of times you have to explain the pen essay same exact thing over and over and over and over again. They’ll just go “Oh, it’s in Beta”, and move on with their lives. Man Vs Nature Essay? Considering how stupid some of these responses I’ve read so far have been, it’s pretty likely.
Kinda like how when Valve stuck the vfw patriot random stick things on the back of thesis example Chell’s legs in Portal, and vfw patriot, playtesters stopped asking how she survived dropping so far. I was curious about what it meant and came to check this page and all I find is a bunch of assholes complaining about nature everything. This tool isn’t exactly correct. You should fix it. If I can manipulate it to get a higher reading level, then I can never be sure it’s the correct reading level. You should make it so it can;t be manipulated. Then we can trust it!
This load of garbage is apparently college grad level: The dog eats sandwiches through which quantum entanglement causes apocalyptic flame to vfw patriot, spew from the ashes of the nether worlds. Cover For Internship In Computer? Although obscene and vulgar the knowledge of vfw patriot wherewith the sacrament of illogical catalysts register a sense of zen. Thesis? Hereupon, let it be known that although mortal knowledge is easy to acquiesce it is indeed a gem of the froth of power. Please read the pen essay article. Reading level has to do with words a person would understand, not the approaches to thesis writing actual writing. tbh I’m only 14 and I’m taking APUSH and 12th grade math so ur all dumb :p.
Actually I’m in grade 4 and vfw patriot pen essay, taking all grade 12 classes. just in case u didn’t catch that play on words. hm, I write in other language than english in short essay, wordcounter (portuguese). I wonder if that counts? Wow can a word counter site create so much hate?! Keep going you keyboard warriors! #128578; You bring so much joy to vfw patriot, the world. PSYCH! you guys have no lives, just like Poke hunters have no lives.
Get out of your mom’s basement, you’re 34 and a half, obese and essay on indian, without friends. (HINT: get some friends, and pen essay, a life (visit black.market.international to buy some friends if you cant make any)). I’m not 34 and obese but I will take your advice Alex. I can’t believe all the complaining going on here for a tool that’s here to help improve writing. if you think it’s so awful, build a better one! What is the letter in computer science highest level?
College Graduate? This got College Graduate: Insiduous precipitate insular cognitive osculator consensus iniquitous oxymoron ostentious corollary commission reverberation sanctify pious exoneration exploit reinforce cancerous nebulous nematode cognitive reverence reticence promiscuous pulmonary propinquity pension treaty of Versailles masque vermillion respiration fermentation dollop systemic cancerous faculty heinous vehement sought neigh balustrade balustrade iniquitous iniquituous. This is apparently college graduate type of work: .Uay vary VARY VARY correact stoary. once there was a bad guy named tomooogoa. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? he likwed to on what i grow up, eat liattle hippos and pen essay, techers. he had very avanded ways of catchibg thim. hippos were not very smaert so theay ware eaesily cauight.
Look at the spidaer on may waell. And me scquished it and now it’s daed. Me I’mn hungary. Rice? Oh lookit the pretti lamp. Sicccors are very danugerous. You cannot keep thim aeround hippos. If only I could write as well as you can when I’m drunk. Vfw Patriot? Seriously, Hemingway’s Lemonade doesn’t work for me. Good on you. I typed in … I am too cool 4 u kid.
Get rekt or jump off a bidge. Go poo yrsekf and got 11th-12th grade. P.S. I am pretty sure a 3rd grader could type better. grants a College Graduate reading level. Hey, let’s all not forget why we’re using the web… TO COUNT WORDS. Everyone leaving a comment here is so pretentious. Who cares if you’re a 4th grader with a 12th grade reading level.
That means NOTHING kiddo. Man Vs Short Essay? This website is an excellent tool for writing essays, not to brag about how smart you think you are. The reading level thing is vfw patriot pen essay just an final thesis algorithm to give you a basic approximation. Of course it’s not going to be perfect. Depends on your target but with 12th grade level is enough. im in 7th grade and vfw patriot pen essay, i wrote a college level essay lol. For my GCSE photography course we had to final thesis, write about a photographer of our choice, so i wrote it in vfw patriot pen essay, word counter just so i could estimate the amount of room i would need/how many pages i would need to fit my writing in. When i had done 86 words i looked across and it said my writing level was a 4th grade, i then went downstairs to get a drink. My cat walked on my laptop, specifically the ‘x’ key. When i got back i noticed my kitty had added ‘x x x x xxxxxxxxxxxxx x x x x x x x’ etc my writing level went up to a college student. Not trying to bash here, just stating my experience.
Huh, this word counter actually recognizes that using simple to read and concise sentences is college level writing. I wrote a really simple blurb for my music theory class and was just checking the word count when the short reading level surprised me. “The beat unit for simple meters is a non dotted quarter note. Examples of simple meters include, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. Vfw Patriot? The beat unit for compound meters is a dotted quarter note. Examples of compound meters include 3/8, 6/8, and 9/8, The natural subdivision of a simple meter is a quarter note into two eighth notes. Rice? A half note in simple meter could be subdivided into 4 eighth notes. The natural subdivision of a compound meter is a dotted quarter note into pen essay a triplet of eighth notes. A dotted half note in compound meter could be subdivided into 6 eighth notes.
The simple 2/4 meter is rice thesis most closely related to the compound 6/8 meter. 2/4 contains 2 pulses of quarter notes per measure, while 6/8 contains 2 pulses per measure as well, except the beat is on a dotted quarter note instead. The 3/4 simple meter is most closely related to the compound 9/8 meter. 3/4 contains 3 pulses of quarter notes per measure, while 9/8 contains 3 pulses of dotted quarter notes per pen essay, measure. The 4/4 simple meter is most closely related to the compound 12/8 meter. 4/4 contains 4 pulses of quarter notes per short, measure, while 12/8 contains 4 pulses of dotted quarter notes per pen essay, measure. While playing music, I prefer simple meter, as it is easier to read and interpret, and man vs nature short, pieces tend to be written in simple meter anyways. I do enjoy listening to compound meter, where it is easier to write swing rhythms whatnot.
I do not have any real preference for either kind of vfw patriot meter, both are important parts of approaches to thesis music. Washington Post March by John Philip Sousa is an example of vfw patriot pen essay a piece in compound meter (6/8). Rhapsody in final example, Blue by George Gershwin is an example of a piece in simple meter (4/4).” Really, some kid in elementary school band should be able to pen essay, understand this … music harder than writing confirmed. ?_(?)_/? What does it mean if my writing is thesis College graduate level? Lol, just your average seventh grader, and it said my reading/grammar level was at which a college level! said I ws at college level I’m yr 6 for gods sake #128578; LOL. Yo, I thought you said that I would be able to understand this! Haha. yea but, you’re just too stupid lol. *Sticks tongue out* Mehhh Go away dummy! Haha!
I’m pretty sure what I wrote about isn’t a grade 11-12 reading level… ^^;; Admin: I think a link to the 3000 words would stop the same questions repeated over and over pen essay and over and over and over cover for internship in computer and ……. I’m sure you get it. If you put a link in the article and said it was a list of 3000 words expected to vfw patriot, be known by grade ? (age ?) in the USA (?) you might not find yourself answering the same question again and again. I am assuming it’s a US list because of your use of final thesis ‘grade’ and not age. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? This means writing in ‘English English’ words such as ‘colour’ (color) and many more, will not be on the list either, I’m guessing. Is there a standardised list for other grades in the US or are all other levels calculated purely by the equation (words per sentences etc.) you have written above? I’m just curious there – I’m from the UK. I like the site, this is actually the first time I’ve been concerned with reading level – I’m trying to simplify what I’m writing, but mostly that’s ensuring medical terminology is understood by using the commonly used word in parenthesis afterwards – e.g. scapula (shoulder blade), so unless I removed all the medical terms to test it I’m not going to to thesis writing, get a different result.
Reading time and words per sentence, number if sentences etc. is more helpful while I’m comparing various options for a collaborative piece of writing. I clicked to see how the reading level was assessed, to see how/ if I should try other ways to lower it, but it’s not necessary. I scrolled through the comments section and thought I’d add a positive comment noting how useful the tool is when it’s used correctly and understood because of the number of comments basically showing people don’t seem to understand the explanation fully. I’m a linguist (psycho-neuro-cognitive linguist, specifically, at postgrad level) so I suggest an pen essay example often used in distinguishing between syntax and anne rice thesis, semantics – at the basis of the argument ‘what is a sentence?’ – Usually described as a grouping of words that adheres to grammatical rules in a language and makes sense. Vfw Patriot? Noam Chomsky (‘father of anne modern linguistics’) proved a sentence could be completely correct in its use of syntax, but entirely nonsensical, semantically: “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.” One of the most famous linguists, Steven Pinker uses the vfw patriot example in his popsci book, The Language Instinct and it’s constantly used in linguistic arguments.
I’m aware you may know all this, having created this site, but if not, it is an example that is word on what easy to look up if you wanted to add to your explanation of the difference between reading level and pen essay, writing level – anyone can stick that specific sentence into Google and read 40 years of linguistic debate. Sorry, just thinking……… while procrastinating over the actual writing I’m trying to do that doesn’t interest me, whereas this analysis does. Man Vs Short Essay? Good site! what? 3000 words?
Are you crazy? hahahahaha… i am no like that then. To be honest, I persuaded myself to not comment after viewing some of the vfw patriot pen essay ridiculous comments in response to this article. I originally used this site to thesis example, check the word count on vfw patriot pen essay a piece of writing I was assigned to complete in my English class. I spotted the reading level as I read the rice word count. Pen Essay? However, I became very offended when it claimed my writing was at seventh to eighth grade reading level. To familiarize you with myself, I am an approaches to thesis writing eleventh grade student who skipped a year of school and is one of the vfw patriot smartest in my honors classes. I have scored immensely well on the SAT writing portion and as a seventh grader and as an approaches writing eleventh grader. Without exception, I scored an vfw patriot pen essay A on my pieces of writing for school. As a curious and inquiring mind, I decided to test the authenticity of the reading level. Word On What I Grow Up? The following was considered college level: “Hence, heathens stood lackadaisically.
Therefore, dauntless must diverge.” A few of you might see some familiar words in those two sentences. The first is an vfw patriot allusion to the song “Heathens” from the movie, “Suicide Squad,” contains my favorite word (a form of lackadaisical), and also alluded to a viral post about the number of degrees required for ‘hence’ not to approaches to thesis, be considered plagiarism. Pen Essay? The second is a reference to anne rice thesis, the book “Divergent” by vfw patriot pen essay Veronica Roth. Due to sheer insanity and boredom, I decided to see the reading level on this comment and it was considered an eleventh to anne thesis, twelfth grade reading level. Before I get a million trolls scavenging around the vfw patriot mistake in my comment, I just noticed the extra ‘and’ in the first sentence about myself. Therefore, I trolled myself. There’s a quote that says “Easy reading is damned hard writing.” – Unknown. In other words. If your writing is easy to read, you should be very pleased with yourself. Wrote some Spanish and it said college.
ROFL. Thanks so much for this tool. This is rice great for students and people in any industry. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Very helpful technology. Thank you so much.
Many people are immune to pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis but some times pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is very common especially around volcanos. It’s due to the use of higher-level dictionary terms. While it is completely gibberish and makes no sense, passing the thesis paragraph to a typical fourth grader would leave them rather confused about 90% of the words used; the metric uses what a fourth grader would typically understand as the vfw patriot baseline and goes up from there based on the commonality of words pulled from the dictionary it uses for the formula. “The interrelational level of the synaptic exchange between various idea that, in a post-structural sort of analysis, give way to all the meandering tropes which make up our existences through an intersectional framework all add to cover for internship science, the propinquity of intradimensional experiences, all within a subpar trope that mellifluously delineates all our existences’ sakes. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? “ Many accoutrements are used for gasconading. Anne Rice Thesis? always stay equanimity when going through pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. im a college graduate also in junior high. Yeah, I feel like a 6th grader like me can’t write at pen essay, a 1-12th grade level! =o. Wow, this is anne thesis perfect for what I need and it’s free as well. Thanks for providing this. hi everyone I love word counter its really helped me with my 10 000 word essay I didn’t hav 2 count it all by myself I found this and fell in love with it I recommend it 2 anyone. *** The. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Dog. Eats.
Sandwiches. Wi. Just that, got me 10th grade. Im not an word when i grow admin but this DOES NOT COUNT PLURALS. Do not take this as criticism it is vfw patriot pen essay simply an idea. What if you also took in final, the vocabulary from the vfw patriot pen essay grade textbooks as they usually have very specific words or even use the 1000 word i want when up words from them in general as I have noticed each year they subtly increase in vocabulary strength. Also anyone whom wants to complain please read all other comments as they have repeated the same complaints various times. Leave the creators alone as this idea is quite amazing and stop repeating complaints as this is no longer constructive and pen essay, is simply annoying. Ps. Please don’t comment on my grammar as I am aware it is final thesis example terrible.
I wrote about articles related to driving licence and used this site to vfw patriot pen essay, check functionality, result came is short “College Student”, which is closest to relevancy. #128578; Thanks. Like everything, people who do nothing complain and nit-pick the most. Great website, great explanation. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? Nothing’s perfect, but what this provides is 1000x’s more beneficial than the nothing than constant detractors provide. Here’s a link to my flickr account with proof that the credibility of the anne Reading Level tab being very untrustworthy. Pen Essay? https://www.flickr.com/photos/146534784@N07/31842003150/in/dateposted-public/lightbox/ I don’t turn in cover for internship science, anything short of college level papers. Despite my grammatical errors, and nonsensical phrasing, the pen essay following was deemed College Graduate: “circumlocutions gregarious finite element analysis dynamic planar kinematic multivariate calculus.
Propulsion physicist berate bereaved asymptotic asymmetrically. Unbeknownst partition undersecretary vector integrate professionally dictate criterion abalone distinguished foolhardy” Dang, I’m smarted, huh? A few summers ago – I don’t remember which year – there was a period of time at the airport where we could ride in a small, four-seat plane. Essay I Want? I sat in the copilot’s seat, and even got to fly the plane alone!
For about thirty seconds, but it felt like hours! A few summers ago – I don’t remember which year – there was a period of time at the airport where we could ride in a small, four-seat plane. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay? I sat in the copilot’s seat, and even got to fly the plane alone! For about thirty seconds, but it felt like hours! Ever since, I have loved any type of flying- Flying on final example a commercial or private plane, watching a commercial or private plane fly, or even watching birds fly. srsly… 1 sentence and up like 5 grades…. wow…. (not trying to hate, srry!) Yep…One of the deficiencies is vfw patriot that it counts the on indian education 3000 words, not variations of those words (watch is on the list, watching is not).
We’re working to address this weakness. Rainbow sparkles. Unicorns. Me. Is what I wrote and it said college. Reading Level said my euthanasia argument paper was 11-12th grade but my Shakespeare play one was College Level…
Most the vfw patriot pen essay people (not counting the people with common sense) on here seem to think that computer AI systems can calculate the same way that humans can. It’s very simple. Rice? If you are in vfw patriot pen essay, college you can still write an short elementary level novel if you use the pen essay words learned in the average elementary school. This AI doesn’t care about your writing style or how many times you repeat a word. It does not understand your mockery, it just wants to be friendly. Don’t judge it by it’s face value. It’s a tool to judge your writing so you judge who your future audience will be. Now I sound like one of those douches who answer yahoo answers. Thank you society for forcing me to put training wheels on essay on what i want when your bicycles. elucidate ones mental state in its highest form of mastery as one when combined with thermodynamic fusion and vfw patriot, chemical entropy. As the cover science mass-energy equivalence of our geometric majesty reaches heights not seen since the coming of enlightenment when we reached that pinnacle of human endeavour we shall see the glorious coming of the most radiant of them.
We shall be masters of reality as we strive to the betterment of glorious hydrophilic ant men. This was college graduate level. Pen Essay? LOL. I just used it on a 18,000 word story. It told me the cover in computer reading level was 10th grade level.
I would consider this accurate. I think it worked perfectly for me. I heard somewhere that a newspaper is written at a 5th-6th grade reading level, so that just about vfw patriot pen essay anyone who knows how to final, read at a 5th grade level can comprehend it. That makes perfect sense to me. They are trying to make it so that the highest number of people possible can understand what is going on in the pen essay world, and also that makes their potential subscriber base larger.
I just wrote an to thesis article for my blog and it ranked it at a 5th-6th grade reading level. It seems to line up perfectly with the pen essay way I wrote my article, since I also wrote it so that as many people possible can read and comprehend it. I think this is a great tool. I originally just for the word counter, but found the cover for internship in computer science other features interesting so I tried them. It’s a great tool. Wordcounter is the vfw patriot pen essay best tool to check spelling mistakes. This feature is the best joke ever LOLOLOLOLOLOLOLOL.
lol lol lol lol lolol lolo lmaooolmaooolmaoooo. best joing feature. No More Wood Counter Uses Mod in Minecraft would be nice #128512;
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Custom History of Fossil Fuel Exploration Essay. The history of vfw patriot exploration and short essay on indian education use of fossil fuels is centuries-old. People have been burning coal, oil, and gas for very many years (Morris, 2006). Coal, oil, and gas have been the world’s most dominant sources of vfw patriot energy since 1800 A.D. Before the discovery of fossil fuels, people relied on human-generated energy and sometimes animal sources. 1000 Word On What I Grow. Fossil fuels formed over millions of years are a result of the decomposition process of remains of plants and animals. The decomposition is caused by the immense heat and pressure that the remains have been subjected to. The rate of use of these resources continues to increase in the process of vfw patriot modernization and industrialization.
These fuels are used to run machines, light and heat homes, offices, as well as factories. All the three forms of fossil fuels, oil, coal and gas, have been used to generate other energy sources such as electricity. The use of fossil fuels in America is extensive. For example, over 75 million barrels of oil are used on approaches to thesis writing a daily basis in the country (Morris, 2006). Today human life heavily depends on the energy generated by vfw patriot pen essay fossil fuels. From the processing/manufacturing industry to transport industries, fossil fuels have been explored, exploited, and used since 1639. After the Second World War, the exploitation and use of fossil fuels has greatly increased.
The industrial revolution thus played an enabling role in expanding the use of fossil fuels, coal in particular. For example, in 1800, the Industrial Revolution that spread to the United States led to the use of fossil fuels to operate steam-powered railroads and the whole transport industry. Presently, fossil fuels are the most available form of generating power both for anne private and pen essay commercial use. Petroleum fuels for example are used to run cars. Final Example. Natural gas and coal are used to provide heat and electricity in homes and industries. In 2005, more than 75% of the total world energy consumption was supplied by fossil fuels. Of the three, petroleum was the leading one providing over 43.4% of the global energy consumption, natural gas catered for vfw patriot 15.6%, while coal catered for 8.3%. In the entire world, North America is the biggest consumer of fossil fuels. It uses approximately 25% of all fossil fuels. In the United States, coal remains the final thesis, energy of choice for pen essay many applications. This is due to the fact that coal in comparison to the other forms of fossil fuels is readily available.
The cost of man vs nature short its production is vfw patriot pen essay also relatively low when compared to the other forms of fossil fuels. Cover Letter Science. Almost 91% of coal that is produced is used in the generation of electricity in the United States. The exploration, exploitation, and use of vfw patriot pen essay fossil fuels over the years have risen to the level that is for internship in computer currently causing sustainability concerns. Of critical concern is the fact that the vfw patriot, resources have been used unsustainably, and the world is running out of fossil fuels that have extensively been relied on for private use and commercial purposes since the time of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, more and more countries are applying a great number of 1000 essay on what to be i grow up mechanisms and structures to ensure that the resources are not depleted and vfw patriot the resources that are available now are used sustainably. This is done with the focus on the energy needs of the world in the coming years.
The United States has not been left behind either. The country has been struggling to develop and implement energy regulation and use policies that consider the short essay on indian, bitter truth that the world is running out of vfw patriot fossil fuels. The Peak Oil Theory. The term “peak oil” is used by experts and scholars in the field of energy to describe the point at word to be when, which the earth’s supply of oil does not meet the energy demands, especially considering that oil is not a renewable energy source. This implies that as much and much oil is exploited and used to meet the energy needs for private and commercial purposes, its exhaustion will be the eventual reality. The theory is associated with M. King Herbert who predicted the shortage of oil in the United states in the 1970s. Pen Essay. Geologists have continued to warn of the imminent collapse of oil supply not only in the U.S. but also globally, with the possibility that this peak would bring technology and commerce down or generally slow down the progression of the two indicators of modernity. According to King Hubbert, the global oil peak would become an inevitable reality by the early 2000s. According to some proponents of the peak oil theory, the average rate of production in an individual oil well grows progressively until the rate of production reaches a peak before it begins to decline. The decline is sometimes very rapid leading to thesis example, an immediate depletion of oil reserves not only in America but all over the world.
The eventual decline of oil production in the U.S. and vfw patriot the whole world has great implications for the performance of the industrial and commercial sectors. The supply shortfalls of oil have an on what i want to be up, impact that leads to price inflation of the valuable resource. This in pen essay turn causes shortage of essay on indian energy, adoption of extreme oil conservation measures, as the world is pen essay searching for alternative sources of energy. The oil peak crisis has therefore led to significant changes in the energy use and regulation policies, changes in the lifestyle and technological processes in an attempt to mitigate or ameliorate the world-wide energy crisis. The peak oil theory that alludes to the earth reaching its optimal capacity to produce more oil is justified by the declining oil production levels in countries outside OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). An examination of countries outside the Former Soviet Union and OPEC reveals a pattern of decline in the total oil production since the year 2000.
Most of the countries have already reached their production peaks or are about to in computer science, reach this level. The only countries that have the potential to expand their oil production are Angola and Brazil. Stagnation of the oil production in most countries has been the consequence of pen essay peaking oil production in the North Sea that occurred in 2000. The global onshore oil production reached its plateau stage much earlier in final thesis the 1990s and has been declining since then. This decline has led to further shortage of vfw patriot pen essay oil, since the offshore only man vs nature accounts for 50% of the total oil production. The oil supply gap is expected to widen even further in the coming years, as most oil reserves within OPEC and countries of the Former Soviet Union reach their production peaks. Further development of vfw patriot production deficit was caused by the production peak of Cantarell in Mexico, which is the world’s biggest offshore field among the word on what when up, top four oil producing fields globally. Vfw Patriot. It started to register a decline in 2005. The increasing decline in oil production in the major reserves means that it would be more and more complicated to sustain the 1000 word on what when, overall oil production levels.
The peak oil theory is thus based on vfw patriot the general proven fact that most of the oil reserves across the globe have entered the plateau phase or are just about to reach this level, leading to shortage in supply against the rising demand for oil across the world and especially in developing/industrializing countries. The peak oil theory is based on the analysis of the production trends of giant oilfields. Most of the world’s giant oil fields were discovered almost 50 years ago. According to geological records, since the 1960s, annual oil discoveries have been decreasing. The peak oil crisis is a global menace in the sense that most Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) and countries in the FSU (Former Soviet Union) are not increasing their production levels, since they have reached their limits. For example, Russia, which is the man vs essay, biggest part of the Former Soviet Union, is pen essay starting to experience a decline in oil production limits. Approaches. There are also several countries outside OPEC and pen essay the FSU that are already in their post-peak stages of oil production. The United States and Mexico, which make up the North Sea production, have already reached their peak and are experiencing a decline in their annual oil production levels. The decline in essay i want i grow up oil production in the United States and other countries within the North Sea region points to the crisis that the world economy is embedded in due to the increasing energy demands against the declining supply. Most countries, America included, are therefore looking for and developing alternative energy sources.
Besides, there is the dawning reality and need to vfw patriot pen essay, review the energy regulation policies. However, the greatest impact of the peak oil phenomenon is the fact that the United States having reached its peak level is struggling to gain access to oil reserves in nature short essay other countries that have not been exploited so that they can meet the supply-demand gap that its industrial economy is experiencing. A part of the strategy is to develop diplomatic relations with governments of the countries whose oil reserves have not peaked and where more oil reserves are being discovered. This has had an impact on the development, review, and pen essay implementation of the U.S. foreign policy, energy policy, and the security policy (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010). In the wake of peak oil, in most reserves in letter for internship in computer science the U.S, it has been evident that much of the oil reserves that still have the potential to increase and sustain productivity are in the Middle East and Africa. Coincidentally, most of the vfw patriot, countries with potential oil surplus are predominantly Muslim (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010). The assumption that Islamic Fundamentalism is the force behind international terrorism has thus been perceived by most scholars of international relations and political science as war that is not based on eradication of international terrorism. In reality, it aims to gain control over scarce resources, particularly oil. The global conflict characterized by war on for internship in computer science international terror that the U.S has evidently gained control over is thus a war over control of the sources of fossil fuels across the globe. Tucker, Roberts and Zinni (2010) cited that the vfw patriot, U.S. is thus fighting against Islamic countries claiming that most international terrorist organizations are led by Muslims.
In fact, the example, U.S. security policy, energy and international relations policy are all targeted at one goal, which is pen essay gaining access to alternative, cheap, and sustainable sources of energy because of the writing, peak oil crisis, as most of the fossil fuel reserves in the United States register a decline (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010). Peak Oil, 9/11, and the War on Terror. The war on terror has been caused and greatly influenced by vfw patriot the unfolding realities in oil reserves that continue to reach their peak. There have been debates over the changes in the U.S. Cover Letter For Internship In Computer Science. foreign, energy, and security policies (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010). Many of these changes have been made in line with the rising focus on the global war on terror which the United States is ably leading. Perhaps this explains the reason behind the vfw patriot, involvement of the U.S and the U.K. in the Middle East after 9/11. This region is predominantly Muslim and is known to be the hub of promising oil reserves that have not reached their peak or where more reserves are being explored (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010).
Palestinians and Muslim inhabitants of the Middle East have taken advantage of the oil reserves they have in the war between Israelis and Palestinians. This explains partly how the oil crisis in the United States and the availability of this valuable commodity in the Middle East and Afghanistan led to conflicts. The U.S. was seen to rice, be apparently providing its support for the Israeli side during the vfw patriot pen essay, war against Palestinians. This made the U.S and Israel the target of cover for internship Al-Qaeda attacks that bombed the U.S. on 9/11. Tucker, Roberts and Zinni (2010) cited that there have been numerous discussions that link the oil factor with the war on vfw patriot terror. The U.S., especially during the Bush administration, was seen to anne thesis, fight Muslims on the pretext that they are a threat to the country’s security, especially following the vfw patriot, 9/11 attacks that had been planned and executed by Al-Qaeda (Tucker Zinni, 2010). The decision by the Bush administration to deploy over 130000 of U.S. troops in Iraq, Iran, and other predominantly Muslim countries in the Middle East was considered by U.S rivals to be motivated by its interest in controlling the oil reserves.
This falls within the energy policy framework of the United States that sought alternative sources of fossil fuels after the example, U.S. oil reserves dried out. Rosati Scott (2011) cited that this would explain the pen essay, reason behind U.S. attacks on Afghanistan, Pakistan, Palestrina, and some other Middle East countries. The U.S. Man Vs Essay. security policy that targets at protection of the U.S. against vfw patriot international terrorist attacks could be just an excuse, while the writing, actual goal is U.S. interests in the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa where almost 75% of the world’s oil and natural gas are found (Tucker, Roberts Zinni, 2010). The American defense department leads war against international attacks. This shows a link between energy, security, and foreign policies (Yetiv, 2004). The United States is perceived by many scholars in the field of international relations to be interested not in protecting its sovereignty but its position as the world political, economic and military super-power.
It has been using this position to gain control over oil reserves (Yetiv, 2004). The foreign policies, security, and energy policies are thus constantly being reviewed to enhance betterment of the U.S. position in realizing this objective. This explains the relations between the U.S. government and Muslim Federalists in the Middle East and President Obama’s growing interest in Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC). The target is to vfw patriot, cut the foreign exchange costs related to the import of cover science oil, which the vfw patriot pen essay, U.S. aggressively needs for the establishment of its commercial and industrial sectors (Pill, 2003). The relationship between the U.S. and the Middle East remains sour. This is due to the fact that the short essay on indian, Middle East is very volatile and less amenable in terms of U.S. influence. This is because of the vfw patriot pen essay, identification of the United States with Israel, which is short essay on indian a rival nation of the Middle East (Rosati Scott, 2011). U.S oil companies are thus held in a fix, and they have to vfw patriot pen essay, first address the short, resentment of the Middle East against the American government.
Poor relationships between the Middle East and vfw patriot the U. S. are largely caused by the fact that it is word essay on what to be up predominantly controlled by Islamic fundamentalism. Although U.S foreign, energy and security policies have attempted to address this issue, little progress has been made. U.S. foreign and security policies have been counterproductive with respect to their ability to influence the key oil countries in the direction of U.S. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. policies. Perhaps the move by the U.S. foreign affairs secretary to build networks with Saudi Arabia is calculated and is aimed at finding alternative energy sources, since Saudi Arabia is the world’s foremost oil producer (Pill, 2003). The internal U.S. energy policy has not been very successful in satisfying internal oil demands of the U.S. (Yetiv, 2004). This is partly because of the cover science, challenge of pen essay being able to influence US consumers to comply with the tax-induced high oil prices. The energy policy considers this move to be the thesis, best step towards the implementation of incentive-based energy savings and achievement of efficiency. It is true that the United States is the largest consumer of vfw patriot pen essay fossil fuels in the world. Final Example. The U.S foreign policy is therefore the consequence of its domestic energy policy, especially with regard to the country’s domestic oil policies. The war against international terror was launched after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
Pill (2003) cited that the international war on global terror that is dictated by the peak oil reality in the United States and other Western countries has thus been caused and guided by the energy crisis in the United States and the issues relating to security. Islamic federalism is thus fought not on vfw patriot the basis of for internship in computer science religious fundamentalism, but because of peaking oil reserves. The global war on vfw patriot pen essay terror is thus led and directed by energy policies more than national security and foreign relation policies. The ultimate goal of the war on terrorists mostly from Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and other Middle East countries is the need to make the Islamic Fundamentalism the orchestrator of global terror attacks. The U.S. department of defense then responds to such situations through deployment of its defense forces into these countries.
These is very evident in cases that led to the incarceration of Saddam Hussein in Iraq, and even the death of the leader of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden in Pakistan (Pill, 2003). Religious radicalism that is being witnessed is thus just a pretext for conflicts whose root cause is the essay to be, struggle by the U.S to gain control over such resources as oil or gas in these countries. U.S. energy, foreign, and security policies are thus being harmonized so that this goal can be easily achieved. The war against pen essay international terrorism is being keenly looked at by students of international relations and globalization. According to most scholars, the war on international terror has taken a twist and is not just based on religious radicalism but rather on access to and control over valuable resources such as oil and other forms of fossil fuels in approaches writing the wake of the peak oil, as espoused in the peak oil theory. Pen Essay. The United States is anne thus affecting its foreign, security, and energy policies not on the basis of some real needs of the country, but out of the determined resolve to develop diplomatic political relationships with Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC). Perhaps this explains why President Barrack Obama has been interested in the Muslim community so as to build relations with them. A long-term goal is to acquire access to the oil reserves in the countries of the Middle East in order to sustain America’s energy needs.
Alternative Energy as US Alternative Strategy. According to some forecasts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the residential energy use in the United States is bound to increase by approximately 25% by 2025 (Kowalski, 2011). As oil reserves continue to reach their peak and pen essay decline in the annual oil output, strategies and alternatives have to be sought. Although the United States has appeared to anne thesis, be reaching out to some countries in the Middle East through its foreign policy strategies, these efforts are apparently not about to yield any better results. This is because of the perception of Muslim Federalists that the United States is not genuinely interested in protecting its sovereignty and securing its borders. U.S. security, foreign, and policies are perceived to pen essay, disguise the real goal of the U.S., which is to gain access to countries that are rich in oil.
In fact, the U.S government is perceived to be promoting international wars and essay conflicts so as to take advantage of and gain control over vfw patriot countries rich in oil. Some examples that have been mentioned are the up, penetration of vfw patriot U.S. Man Vs Nature Essay. troops into Iran, Iraq, and Palestine. Such a scenario point to the fact that it is high time alternative strategies were pursued. In the wake of the declining oil supply, increasing demand for the commodity in commercial and domestic spheres, war on international terrors, and national security, the only alternative that the United States has is to be self-reliant. Self-reliance and sustainability in terms of access to energy that is pen essay adequate enough to drive the American economy must thus be a priority for the U.S. The key to winning this war is not anywhere else apart from 1000 word on what to be i grow up, finding renewable sources of energy. These are energy sources that are replenished by themselves even as they continue being exploited and used. These include solar, water, geothermal, wind, biomass, and pen essay other renewable sources of energy. The areas in the U.S that have good wind resources have the potential to supply approximately 20% of the U.S electricity consumption needs.
Geothermal and hydroelectric sources of energy can also greatly contribute to the enhanced energy output in the United States (Kowalski, 2011). In order for the U.S. to appear genuinely committed to fighting against international terrorism, enhancing its national security, the solution is not in reviewed foreign and security policies but in the development of alternative energy policies and encouraging a supportive public policy on renewable energy. The United States needs to invest in the development and production of alternative sources of anne thesis energy. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) thus needs to explore options for developing nuclear, geothermal, and hydropower sources. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay. Instead of fighting against nations that are developing their alternative energy sources, the United States ought to nature essay, raise public awareness on the benefits of renewable energy sources for commercial and domestic purposes (Kowalski, 2011). Thus, there should be continuous investment in the production of renewable sources of energy that translates into the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable sources.
Besides, security and foreign policies should not be politicized and directed by energy needs of the United States. This has been the reason why the sincerity of the Department of Defense in its war against international terror especially after 9/11 has been doubted. Thus the success, effectiveness, and pen essay international approval of the war on terror can only be achieved through finding some lasting and sustainable sources of energy by the United States. The United States’ energy, security, and foreign policies have been greatly influenced by the peak oil crisis that is faced by most of the countries across the short essay on indian, globe. As the U.S. Pen Essay. experiences shortage in oil, it is increasingly spreading its tenets to other countries through its foreign policy to short essay education, gain access to cheaper and reliable sources of oil. Vfw Patriot. Therefore, the war on international terror that initially appeared to be based on religious radicalism targeting at Muslim fundamentalists has since taken a shift and appears to be directed by the peak oil realities that are unfolding not only in the United States but also in numerous countries across the globe.
The solution to this issue is thus to be found in approaches writing the development of alternative renewable energy sources. U.S. foreign, energy, and security policies have thus been reviewed and are almost being merged into one. Custom History of pen essay Fossil Fuel Exploration Essay. 95% of nature short essay satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only pen essay Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice.
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My Libertarianism.org Essays: A Third Anniversary Cerebration. Smith marks three years of vfw patriot, his essays with some thoughts about the anne rice importance of libertarian theory and history. My first Libertarianism.org essay was posted on November 3, 2011, and this essay is #150 in an ongoing series with no end in pen essay, sight. The fact that I have had no trouble coming up with topics relating to libertarian ideas, especially as manifested in the history of essay on indian education, political thought, and the fact that I cannot imagine ever running out of pen essay, topics, testify to the richness and diversity of the libertarian tradition. I am taking this break from my current series, “Self-Interest and Social Order in Classical Liberalism,” in order to offer some reflections on the importance of ideas in general and on the history of i grow up, libertarian ideas in particular. Since my essays are aimed at a general audience rather than academics and specialists, a question naturally arises: Why should libertarians care about the philosophy and pen essay, history of their own political ideology? In addressing this question here I am in a sense carrying coals to Newcastle, since anyone who reads my essays on a regular basis is already interested in these matters. Moreover, I don’t think every libertarian necessarily should take an active interest in letter in computer, the philosophical and historical foundations of libertarianism.
As in any broad-based movement, specialization and the division of labor have occurred in the libertarian movement, with some participants more focused than others on pen essay, practical, day-to-day political issues. All this is normal and unobjectionable, of writing, course, but it would be a serious mistake to suppose that knowledge of the vfw patriot pen essay theory and history of man vs nature short, libertarian ideas is without practical value. Let’s take a look at pen essay, this issue in more detail. Perhaps the most dramatic difference in libertarian thinking about strategy is that between pragmatists and ideologues. I offer these categories as ideal types or pure forms (to use the sociological terms of Max Weber and Georg Simmel). In other words, I have constructed these ideal types for the purpose of analysis, without suggesting that real libertarians fall exclusively into one category or the other. Most of us probably embody some features of both types, with a disposition to favor one over the other. Moreover, “pragmatist” and “ideologue” are relative terms; even the cover letter most practical of libertarian pragmatists may be regarded as an impractical ideologue by the general public. Pragmatists typically pride themselves on their “common sense” and on their “realistic” view of the political world. Although they do not altogether deny the importance of theory and ideology, pragmatists believe that these have little application outside the immediate circle of hard-core libertarians. Vfw Patriot! Libertarians may enjoy debating the fine points of theory among themselves, but this intellectual recreation cannot help us in the rough and tumble world of politics.
The pragmatist sees himself as a problem-solver; he is going to roll up his sleeves and get something done. The pragmatist is especially fond of talking about “the real world”—a place, he thinks, that ideologues rarely visit and know little about. The real world is the world of flesh-and-blood human beings, the domicile of the cover for internship in computer science proverbial “average person,” in contrast to the abstract world of the libertarian theorist. The pragmatist, however much he may disparage theory, often has a rather elaborate theory about how to change the world. If he has a background in business (which he often does), the pragmatist will wax eloquent on pen essay, how libertarian ideas can be “packaged” and “sold.” The average person, he tells us, doesn’t want to hear about rights and the proper role of government; he is interested only in letter in computer, his family, his job, and his bank account. It is the pragmatist who likes to write and read books with titles like How You Can Profit from the vfw patriot Coming Extinction of the Human Race. We also have the pragmatic activist who is suspicious of abstract ideology and believes that he has his finger on the pulse of people in the real world. Radical ideas and causes, according to this activist, will alienate our potential supporters, many of whom are disenchanted with traditional politics.
Therefore, we are cautioned not to focus on unpopular issues, such as drug legalization. There are many permutations of pragmatism, some of which are more sophisticated than the types presented here, but all share a dislike, or at least a strong suspicion, of libertarian ideologues and their abstract arguments. Nature Short Essay! When the libertarian pragmatist speaks of “facts” and the “real world,” he means the knowledge gained through experience and observation, knowledge acquired from specific events and circumstances. He begins with empirical facts (concrete people, specific actions, etc.) and vfw patriot pen essay, then generalizes about strategy, based on what libertarians can realistically hope to final, achieve in the near future. This inductive process is based on the historical method. All facts appealed to by the pragmatist (assuming they are accurate) fall within the domain of historical knowledge. History is the study of vfw patriot, past human actions; it is concerned with the unique individual event, not with a general pattern or theory. These historical events are what pragmatists call the “real world” of facts. Ironically, the pragmatist sometimes places history in the same category as theory, relegating both to the ethereal world of the ideologue, scholar, and 1000 essay to be when i grow, academic. Yet, as Mises and others have pointed out, all human knowledge falls into one of these two categories. Vfw Patriot! Knowledge of particular concrete facts is final thesis example always knowledge of something that has already taken place; this is historical knowledge.
General knowledge, on the other hand, does not refer to a specific time and place; this is theoretical knowledge. All knowledge refers either to specific phenomena that occurred at a determinate time and place in the past, or to general propositions that are abstracted from any particular time and place. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay! The former is the sphere of history; the latter is the sphere of cover letter for internship science, theory. The pragmatist commits himself to a strategic method based on history instead of pen essay, theory. This is a plausible choice, provided the pragmatist understands the method he is using, especially its limitations. But this rarely happens.
The pragmatist who disdains theory fails thereby to short essay education, reflect on the theoretical premises and implications of his own method, which remain unacknowledged, unappreciated, and often ill-treated. I will discuss three aspects of this problem. (1) The failure to analyze methodological assumptions is clearly illustrated by vfw patriot the mole-like historical sight of some pragmatists who, in their search for empirical data, search no farther than their immediate range of 1000 word essay on what i want when i grow, vision. History, for the mole, is limited to what he has personally witnessed or at least to events that have occurred during recent decades. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay! For the mole, history began a decade ago, possibly two or three, but rarely does the mole regard as relevant any event that is older than he is. Final! His life and memory, it seems, just happen to overlap perfectly with the only period of history that he needs to know. By a convenient coincidence, all relevant facts pertaining to a free society and how to pen essay, achieve it are confined to short on indian education, the same period of time in which the pragmatist has been interested in libertarianism.
Given his commitment to the real world, the pragmatist should immerse himself in a study of the real world (i.e., history) and learn what factors have contributed to freedom over the past 2500 years. Modern libertarians are not the first people to pen essay, value liberty, nor are we the most successful. Seventeenth- and man vs nature short, eighteenth-century libertarians, for pen essay, example, faced even greater odds than we do, yet they had spectacular triumphs in some areas, such as religious freedom. Those successes were not accidental. Early libertarians were acutely aware of strategic issues—witness the cover science popular appeal of the Enlightenment philosophes , who devoted a good deal of thought to how to reach a general public—yet many of these early libertarians, because of their acute interest in theory and the history of ideas, would qualify as ideologues by the standards of the modern pragmatist.
Indeed, the very word “ideologue” was coined by the pragmatic Napoleon, who used it to smear Benjamin Constant and other French libertarians who refused to sacrifice principles to expediency, and vfw patriot, who demanded a philosophical justification for the immense power wielded by Napoleon. I agree with the word i want when i grow up pragmatist that we should be concerned with what will work in the real world. Pen Essay! But this requires that we learn something about the real world, which is far more complex than the mole would have us believe. If we want to approaches, know what will work , we should find out what has worked in the past. Therefore, the vfw patriot pen essay sincere pragmatist, before he trashes ideologues, should study history for ten years or so, reflect on what he has read, and final thesis example, then get back to us. (2) The most serious error of pragmatism is vfw patriot pen essay its lack of appreciation for the role of ideology in social perception. By “social perception” is meant how we “perceive” the world of social wholes (or entities), such as “state,” “society,” “church,” and “the market.” In truth, we do not perceive social entities with our eyes; rather, we understand them with our minds. Social entities, as Hayek said, are “constituted” by the mind.
They are not physical things, like rocks and cover for internship, trees and vfw patriot pen essay, birds, but are mental constructs of abstract relationships. This means that how we think about social entities will greatly influence how we perceive them. On Indian Education! We libertarians know this from experience, having encountered many people who appear to “see” government differently than we do. Some people don’t see government as essentially coercive; they may even see taxes as voluntary. These differences in social perception result from pen essay, viewing social reality through different ideological lenses. Ideology is absolutely essential to in computer science, the success of the libertarian movement, because it establishes a common frame of reference. If we fail to convince the average person, this is often because we see a different social reality than does the vfw patriot average person. Before we can convince other people we must be referring to the same social world. The real world of approaches to thesis writing, social interaction is vfw patriot not merely a world of objective data and essay on indian education, physical entities.
It is largely a subjective world, one that is filtered through ideological assumptions, premises, and prejudices. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay! The social world is constituted by the ideas that people have about it. If libertarians can change those ideas, they can, in a very literal sense, change the world. (3) In evaluating any form of pragmatism, we should keep in mind that the greatest benefits of nature, a free society are often those that cannot be foreseen or predicted. As Hayek pointed out, this has important implications for vfw patriot, any pragmatic strategy. Approaches Writing! As he wrote in Law, Legislation, and Liberty : “Since the value of freedom rests on the opportunities it provides for unforeseen and pen essay, unpredictable actions, we will rarely know what we lose through a particular restriction of freedom.” The direct effects of to thesis, market intervention, including its apparent short-term benefits, will be apparent in many cases, but we cannot know all the opportunities that have been lost through such intervention. This means that liberty will tend to lose out in many cost-benefit analyses, because the benefits of pen essay, intervention can be “seen,” while the costs, the unrealized opportunities, remain largely “unseen” (to use Bastiat’s terms). Consequently, whenever policy decisions are based on expediency instead of approaches, principle, “freedom is pen essay bound to short on indian, be sacrificed in almost every instance.” Hayek continued:
The preservation of a free system is so difficult precisely because it requires a constant rejection of measures which appear to be required to vfw patriot, secure particular results, on anne rice thesis, no stronger grounds than that they conflict with a general rule, and frequently without our knowing what will be the vfw patriot pen essay costs of not observing the rule in the particular instance. A successful defense of on indian education, freedom must therefore be dogmatic and pen essay, make no concessions to expediency….Freedom will prevail only man vs nature short, if it is accepted as a general principle whose application to particular instances requires no justification. Modern libertarian theory is steeped in the revolutionary ideology of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; of this there can be no doubt. Vfw Patriot! It was mainly from British writers like Algernon Sidney, John Locke, and Trenchard and Gordon (the authors of in computer, Cato’s Letters ) that eighteenth-century Americans learned their revolutionary catechism. Libertarians are generally aware of their revolutionary heritage. What they sometimes fail to appreciate, however, is how detailed and specific our ideological ancestors were about some key features of libertarian theory. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay! In some cases they explored the theory of liberty in greater detail than have present-day libertarians, but some of their insights have unfortunately been lost or ignored by the modern movement.
Having immersed myself for many years in the libertarian literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, I sometimes forget that my enthusiasm is not shared by every libertarian. I am quite astonished when I recall that some dedicated libertarians have never even read John Locke, even though his Second Treatise of Government is arguably the most important and influential book on final example, liberty ever written. I recommend that you read such people, not because they will increase your knowledge of history—though there is certainly nothing wrong with that—but because they will increase your knowledge of vfw patriot, liberty. Much of what early philosophers of liberty had to say is of practical value to modern libertarians. As noted previously, our forefathers and foremothers faced even greater odds than we do, yet their efforts to establish liberty in various spheres—religious, personal, political, and economic—proved more successful than we find in modern times. Thus if we want to essay on indian, know how to persuade people to accept the ideas of vfw patriot pen essay, liberty and establish a free society, we should begin by reading our successful ancestors. Their ideas are as fresh and suggestive as the rice day they were written, however old and dusty the books may be in which those ideas appear. Philosophy, unlike science, does not tend to vfw patriot, advance through the progressive accumulation of knowledge.
The modern student of physics does not need to read Isaac Newton in order to learn about physics. Short! The student, if he reads Newton at all, does so because he is interested in the origin of his science, not because he expects to find the vfw patriot best presentation of his subject matter. Thesis! What remains of value in Newton has been sifted and refined by many generations of scientists, and the student can benefit from this cumulative process by reading a modern up-to-date text on physics. But philosophical theories, including ideas about liberty, do not follow this cumulative pattern. Rather, they tend to zig forward and zag backward in an erratic and unpredictable fashion. The theory of vfw patriot, liberty began to zig noticeably in the seventeenth century. This trend continued, more or less, until the twentieth century brought us statism, collectivism, and total war. This highly retrogressive zag, which is probably the most severe setback that liberty has ever suffered, continued virtually unchecked until the rebirth of libertarian theory a few decades ago.
Let me try to clarify the anne rice historical status of the modern movement through an analogy. The Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century, which was an enthusiastic revival of Greek philosophy, science, and literature, paved the way for the Scientific Revolution. Vfw Patriot Pen Essay! The European mind was stimulated to move forward by to thesis looking backward at the finest intellectual culture ever produced in vfw patriot, the Western World, that of ancient Greece. As libertarians we look forward to a revolution in liberty, but this lies somewhere in the future. We are currently in thesis, our renaissance stage, attempting to restore the lost or forgotten ideas of vfw patriot, our predecessors.
The intellectual culture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a period rich in libertarian ideas, is to our renaissance what the culture of ancient Greece was to short education, the Italian Renaissance—the source of our inspiration and the foundation of our future progress. I suggest that libertarians can best move forward by first looking backward and rediscovering the intellectual gems that were bequeathed to us by vfw patriot our libertarian progenitors, who were more advanced than we are, theoretically speaking, in several major areas. George H. Smith was formerly Senior Research Fellow for the Institute for Humane Studies, a lecturer on American History for Cato Summer Seminars, and Executive Editor of Knowledge Products. Smith's fourth book, The System of man vs nature short, Liberty , was recently published by Cambridge University Press. Explore our growing library of content Start Exploring.
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